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QoS from the Gigapop to the Desktop. The Campus Context; Planning Assumptions - kjk Technical Issues and Alternatives - teg Strawman Approach; Technical Implementation Issues - teg Economic and Policy Implementation Issues - kjk. Campus Technical Contexts.

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qos from the gigapop to the desktop
QoS from the Gigapop to the Desktop
  • The Campus Context; Planning Assumptions - kjk
  • Technical Issues and Alternatives - teg
  • Strawman Approach; Technical Implementation Issues - teg
  • Economic and Policy Implementation Issues - kjk
campus technical contexts
Campus Technical Contexts
  • As many as 50% of campus desktop connections are not centrally managed
  • Large R1’s use many desktop communications technologies
  • Less than 25% of the R1’s currently have authentication
university economic contexts
University Economic Contexts
  • Yearly budget cycles require defined levels of expenditure on datacommunications
  • Lots of “funny money” economies
  • Indirect costs mechanisms add complexity and limit flexibility
  • Datacommunications sometimes operates as an auxiliary, sometimes general fund, usually hybrid
  • Grants generally support one-time costs, not continuing costs
campus political contexts
Campus Political Contexts
  • Programmatic goals drive actions
  • Obligation to maintain a commons
  • Sharp distinctions of haves and have-nots caused by granting opportunities
  • Traditional concerns about equity
  • Dispersed locations, on campus and off
  • Typically loose authority over departments and colleges
  • “The academy” is slow to change
we need guidance from above
We Need Guidance from Above
  • OS
    • What levels (discrete or continuous ) of QoS can the OS request?
    • How adaptive can the OS be?
  • Apps
    • Will adaptive applications be widespread?
    • What types of data flows will applications generate?
    • What QoS characteristics do apps care about?
  • Users
    • Will they accept soft guarantees?
    • How do they want QoS to be allocated?
we need guidance from below
We Need Guidance from Below
  • What will closet switches provide for QoS and signalling?
  • What will ISP’s be offering as premium commodity Internet? How will the service be priced?
  • How will Abilene offer premium service? Will premium service and best-effort coexist on the same “channel”?
  • Will premium service be statically or dynamically provisioned?
three last mile instances for qos
Three Last-Mile Instances for QoS
  • University
  • Corporate
  • Residential
commonalities about qos instances
Commonalities about QoS Instances
  • All will need common understandings of service levels
  • All want audit capabilities
  • All have remote users on the road that might want QoS
  • All need standard interface for QoS requests
differences about qos instances
Differences about QoS Instances
  • Budgetary issues and use of pricing mechanisms
  • The need for end-end authentication and the tools available
  • Privacy and security iissues with QoS
  • Firewalls and address translation
  • The likely applications and their characteristic dataflows
assumptions
Assumptions
  • Simplicity for reliability and operational costs
  • Overprovisioning on campus appears tractable; although some congestion points may arise.
  • External QoS may well be scarce; reservations may be needed for uses that represents a significant percentage of overall external capacity
  • If the equipment can provide differentiated services, we should use those capacities, albeit simply
  • At a minimum, wide-area usage costs should be known to the user; we need to educate demand
  • Legacy systems and apps must be accomodated
the campus qos toolkit
The Campus QoS Toolkit
  • Traffic authorization (premium access demand control)
    • Eligibility Control
    • Admission Control
  • Traffic modification (instantenous demand control)
    • Traffic shaping
    • Traffic policing
  • Traffic adaptation (feedback-based demand control)
    • Protocol Adaptation
    • Application adaptation
    • User adaptation (behavior shaping)
strawman economic and policy issues
Strawman Economic and Policy Issues
  • How do we handle subscriptions?
  • How does this model work for users?
  • How do we handle non-central networks?
  • If we do reserve external QoS, how do we do it?
  • If we do schedule external QoS, how do we do it?
  • How to control use of external QoS?
  • How do we fund this?
  • What are the cost accounting and cost recovery issues?
how do we handle subscriptions
How do we handle subscriptions?
  • What can we charge? What parts of the cost do we recover? Who can we charge?
  • How do we do subscriptions at the many institutions that do not charge for networking?
  • Subcriptions are not for “somewhat better performance” but for “different applications to be functional”; will invoke equity issues
  • How many premium ports do we “sell”; is it a pure marketplace or do allocate coupons to buy? How do we market the service?
  • Where will we need multiple backbones and ribs? What are the funding and fiber consequences?
  • Where do we install premium commons - eg classrooms, conference rooms….
how does this model work for users
How does this model work for users?
  • Is the model clear to lay people? Will the lack of end-end guarantees be an issue?
  • What political issues do subcriptions raise?
  • What interfaces do users see?
  • How can we serve the itinerant user?
  • How will network externalities affect the roll-out?
  • How will the “ sociology of important things” affect the roll-out?
how do handle non central networks
How do handle non-central networks?
  • How do we offer premium service on college/departmental networks?
  • How do we handle the CAR where the net joins the campus net?
how do we allocate external qos
How do we allocate external QoS?
  • What data do we collect at the external gateway?
  • Do we allocate by
    • Policing - doable but imprecise
    • Quotas - require authentication and quota management tools
    • Auction - against university culture
    • Pricing - letting a marketplace set in
if we reserve or schedule
If we reserve or schedule...
  • Do we use RSVP?
  • Must we schedule both ends?
  • What time granularity do we accommodate?
  • What do we do with unscheduled premium service?
  • How do we handle preemptions?
  • What policies do we need for enforcement?
  • Does it complicate meeting on-demand requests?
how do we fund this
How do we fund this?
  • What are the fixed costs? Are they one-time or frequent?
  • What are the variable costs?
  • How will NSP’s bill for premium service?
    • What are the advantages of underusing/overusing premium?
  • We can’t convert all the campus closets to 802.1p or high-performance at once. How do we deploy?
  • Remember that $500,000 per year we once promised….
what are the cost accounting recovery issues
What are the cost accounting/recovery issues?
  • The cost of accounting should be kept to a minimum. Do we have to count or can we use sampled data?
  • How to do usage-based pricing
    • Traffic usage pricing - incoming or outgoing
    • Threshold bands or absolute packet/byte counts
    • All packets or by application type
    • Rates can be modified by time of day, demand, etc.
why not to do usage based pricing
Why not to do usage-based pricing?
  • Cost of administration and management
  • Flat or stairstep costs
  • Concerns for equity
  • Charging would not control demand
  • Charging for premium will deteriorate best-effort
  • We do not do usage-based charging for best-effort.
when to do the cost recovery
When to do the cost recovery?
  • Pre-paid
  • Dynamically at time of use
  • Post-usage audit and billback
  • How to handle returns and credits?
what to charge for usage based pricing
What to charge for usage-based pricing?
  • Money
  • Funny money and quotas
  • How to provide subsidies to support institutional goals?
who to charge for usage based pricing
Who to charge for usage-based pricing?
  • Individuals to shape behaviour
  • Departments and units to reflect programmatics and reasonable granularity
  • Campus management to minimize administration and policy issues
next steps
Next steps
  • Refine and promote the strawman as the technically tractable alternative.
  • Socialize the resulting economic and policy issues with campus I2 or CIO reps.
    • Stone Soup, Snowmass
    • Educom, CAUSE conferences
    • Fall I2 meeting
  • Produce policy alternatives paper for campus discussions