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Digital Broadcast Technology Development. Presented by John Yip Chief Engineer RTHK 2006.12.06. 1. Introduction. DTT/ HDTV IPTV Mobile TV (T-DMB, DVB-H, MediaFLO, One Seg). Broadcast Development. TV on Cable and Satellite, MUSE analog HD. TV. DAB.

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digital broadcast technology development

Digital Broadcast Technology Development

Presented by

John Yip

Chief Engineer



1 introduction
1. Introduction
  • IPTV
  • Mobile TV
  • (T-DMB, DVB-H,
  • MediaFLO, One Seg)
  • Broadcast Development

TV on Cable and


MUSE analog HD



1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

1 introduction1

SD-TV, Broadband Internet, 2.5G, WiFi





* Mature Digital TV and IP Technologies:

Multi-platforms (horizontal) and multi-

qualities (vertical) for the viewers.

New Digital Age

Maximize ROI (savings, revenue)/ business value.


1. Introduction
  • Quad-play Mix: TV/ IT/ Telecom/ Wireless


1 introduction2
1. Introduction

Converging technologies lead to a divergence of viewers’ choices.

  • Convergence
  • Quality

Quality:traded-off against mobility,

transmission costs. Video bitrates, from 0.2

Mbps (for mobile phones) to over 100 Mbps

for HDTV. Quality vs user cost, but

technologies provide flexibility, improvements.

1 introduction3
1. Introduction

Compelling contents can drive people to buy new technologies, e.g. sports.

People’s habits/ life styles are then gradually changed by the new technologies.

  • Content is King + Customer is Queen
  • General Trends

- Ubiquitous: anywhere, anytime, desired form

- Mobility increases

- Threshold of acceptable quality dropping

- Networked environment eg office, home

- Time-shifted viewing/ listening eg PVR, ipod

- Interactive

2 technologies
2. Technologies

Media Technologies









2. Technologies - Radio

DAB(Digital Audio Broadcasting)

A technology for multi-channel audio broadcasts. Based on European Eureka-147 standard, developed in mid 1990’s.

DRM(Digital Radio Mondiale)

An open-source platform for digital radio broadcasting in AM, SW or FM bands. Fits within existing AM channel bandwidth.

DMB(or T-DMB, Digital Multimedia Broadcasting)

A digital system for sending data, radio and TV to mobile devices such as mobile phones. Developed by S. Korea (T-DMB, S-DMB). DAB-compatible.

  • Radio : DAB, DRM, DMB
2 technologies tv
2. Technologies - TV

(Digital Terrestrial TV)

Using digital technology to provide

- more channels (SDTV) and/ or

-better picture (HDTV) and sound (surround)

through a TV antenna eg on top of the roof, instead of using cable, satellite or internet.

  • TV - DTT
2 technologies tv1
2. Technologies - TV

(High Definition TV)

  • 16 x 9 aspect ratio.
  • Studio Standard: 1080/50iin 50Hz countries (HK/China). 720/50p is also used in Europe, Australia.
  • Transmission standard: country-dependent.
  • Picture information about 5 times that of conventional TV
  • Needs critical camera focusing and attention to the wide aspect ratio. OB can use fewer cameras.
  • Compatibility with 4x3 SDTV: some down-convert to 14x9 or 13x9.
  • TV - HDTV
2 technologies tv2
2. Technologies - TV

Chart 1: World-wide, DTT/ HDTV Transmission

  • TV - DTT / HDTV
2 technologies tv3
2. Technologies - TV

Chart 1: World-wide, DTT/ HDTV Transmission (Cont.)

  • TV - DTT / HDTV
2 technologies tv4
2. Technologies - TV

(Internet Protocol TV)

  • Use of Internet Protocol (IP) for home TV transmission, can be over phone lines, via optical fibre trunks.
  • Flexibility of including interactive services and HDTV. Offers many TV channels, viewer-targeting.
  • For HDTV, application of MPEG4 AVC (H.264)/ VC-1 (WMV) coding, VDSL2/ ADSL2+ technologies or Fibre to the Home/ Building (FTTH/ FTTB).
  • TV - IPTV
2 technologies mobile tv
2. Technologies - Mobile TV

Broadcast to hand-sets (mobile phones, PDAs), notebook PCs, etc. Interactive and audio services.


Evolved from DAB. Allows video, audio and data to be

transmitted to mobile devices. More efficient audio coding. Backward compatible with DAB audio (MUSICAM).

DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld)

Tailored for transmitting multiple TV channels to mobile devices. Time-slicing technology conserves battery power of mobile devices.

  • Mobile TV
3 hdtv and economics
3. HDTV and Economics

* Chicken vs egg; (govt. + industry) vs consumers; content creation vs consumption; market size vs consumers’ costs.

* Economics: predictive of a rapid roll-out of costly digital HDTV.

  • AI (Affordability Index)
  • =Normalized(GDP * GDP-per-capita)(using PPP)

GDP--> size of economy --> strength for driving technology/ content creation.

GDP-per-capita--> consumer’s ability buy new devices/ contents.

3 hdtv and economics1
3. HDTV and Economics
  • Ranking of Major Economies, by AI
3 hdtv and economics2
3. HDTV and Economics
  • AI (est. 2004 & 2005 Data)
3 hdtv and economics3
3. HDTV and Economics

Observations from AI (affordability index) data:

  • USA, Europe, Japan established DTT/ HDTV standards (ATSC, DVB-T, ISDB-T). China (mainland) has recently established a standard in Aug., 2006.AI of 9.8 seems to be the minimum threshold.
  • In Europe, the ranking order is Germany, UK, France, followed by Italy/ Spain.
  • For Europe, a wide-coverage technology such as satellites is beneficial (in fact, satellites are prevalent).
  • HDTV activity is most intense in economies with an AI index >=3.8 (2004 data) or 3.9 (2005 data), approx.
  • AI ranking for the top economies has not changed a lot over 2004-2005. (For Hong Kong, AI = 1.7 (2004) and 1.8 (2005); synergy with mainland China is an important factor.)
3 hdtv and economics4
3. HDTV and Economics
  • Expanded List showing Rollouts
3 hdtv and economics5
3. HDTV and Economics

Factors: Accelerating HDTV

  • Other factors impact on HDTV rollout: regulatory, pricing, marketing, etc.

Propelling Factor (HDF) = M (r,p,m,o)*(GDP*GDP-per-capita)

where GDP is based on the PPP method, and

(GDP*GDP-per-capita) = Affordability factor,

M is a function of regulatory/ pricing/ marketing/ other factors

  • For 0=<M<1 : retarding; For M>1 : accelerating
  • As (HDTV sets-per-capita, %) increases with HDF, hence

M is proportional to (HDTV sets-per-capita, %) divided by AI.

3 hdtv and economics6
3. HDTV and Economics

Factors: Accelerating HDTV (cont.)

Propelling Factor (HDF)

= M (r,p,m,o)*(GDP*GDP-per-capita)

On breaking down function M :

HDF = (Ar * Ap * Am * Ao) * (GDP*GDP-per-capita)

Strategic factors to foster HD development:

Ar, Ap, Am, Ao

3 hdtv and economics7

Factors: Accelerating HDTV (cont.)

3. HDTV and Economics

Ar– regulatory, mandating early rollout/ early cessation of analog TV, built-in digital tuners in TV sets, HD on-air quota, spectrum allotments, licensing regime, standardization;

Ap– subsidies by governments/ operators, assisting viewers eg on HDTV STB;

Am– Promotional/ marketing campaigns, to promote viewers’ awareness;

Ao–leapfrog into HD (eg Canada and S. Korea, using ATSC, have achieved fast rollouts), adopting HDV/ low-cost EFP production, D-cinemas/ communal/ public viewing.

4 cd dc model
4. CD• DC Model






eg. Terrestrial,

IPTV, etc.



(IPTV is just one more method for delivering HDTV but it is not affected by spectrum scarcity. IT technologies are used in the delivery process to connect the contents to the services.)

5 ip tv and economics
5. IP TV and Economics

IPTV (HD, SD) and Economics

  • IPTV-HD is subject to the economics of HDTV. However, for IPTV-SD content production is less expensive than that of HDTV.
  • Consumer spending power is an important issue. ROI for the operators is critical.
  • The upgrading and roll-out of a high-bandwidth and scalable network is a major investment. Population density is an influencing factor. Is Hong Kong no. 1 ?

Propelling Factor (IPTF) = Mi (r,p,m,o) * (GDP-per-sq. km)

Equation applies to targeted cities, for IPTV-SD.

6 mobile tv and economics
6. Mobile TV and Economics

Mobile TV and Economics

  • Content production is far less expensive than that of HDTV.
  • Affordability is an issue : hardware and content costs, plus high functional obsolescence (short replacement cycles).
  • Terrain is an issue (HK being one example.)

Propelling Factor (MTF) = Mm (r,p,m,o) * T * (GDP-per-capita)

where T = Terrain factor, 0 < T =< 1. Terrain factor is technology (VHF, UHF, satellite) and frequency-band dependent, for targeted Cities.

7 influencing factors
7. Influencing Factors
  • IPTV: no spectrum issues.
  • Other factors may also apply, such as consumer behaviour.
  • (H/ M/ L = high/ medium/ low impact)
8 status of digital broadcast technologies
8. Status of Digital Broadcast Technologies

Sources : wilkipedia,, etc.

9 convergence hk

On digital broadcast technologies; not FMC.

  • HK: >67% broadband penetration, >131% mobile subscriber penetration, and >2M 2.5G/3G mobile users. Leading with >0.7M IPTV subscribers and high mobile penetration. Lots of potential.
  • Synergy with mainland China on DTT/ HDTV development: HK has one of the highest GDP/ capita and mainland China is near the top in GDP. HK can help accelerate HDTV roll-outs.
  • Chinese CMMB mobile standard uses STiMi for S-CMMB and T-CMMB (terrestrial gap fillers), 30-3000MHz. HK, with high rise buildings and rough terrain, is very challenging for mobile TV using wide-area transmission ie T-CMMB or DVB-H (unlike cellular 3G). FTA may be less problematic.
9. Convergence, HK
10 summary
10. Summary
  • TTT (Triple TV Technologies) and digital sound broadcasting developments are perplexing but interesting.
  • Techno-economic equations and an AI index have been introduced to enhance the understanding of world-wide developments.
  • Technological development and economics are closely related. Other factors such as regulatory, pricing, marketing and even terrain exert influences on growth.
  • Technological diffusion in broadcasting depends a lot on content and consumer behaviour; operators have to evaluate techno-economic and market factors in order to succeed.

“HDTV Development” paper published (searchable on Google, Yahoo HK ),“IPTV Development” available in late Dec. 2006.~The End~Thank You!