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A History of Games

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  1. A History of Games staffan.bjork@chalmers.se

  2. But First! • Supervision today • Time: 13.00-15.00 • My Office, floor 4, House Svea • Reminder • Deadline for assignment #1 is on Tuesday • Instructions available on the course web site • Remember to send an email to Erik Fagerholt if you want to attend the game jam (see the web page)

  3. Today’s lecture • History of Games • Before Computer Games • History of Computer Games • Computer Games today & tomorrow • Famous Game Designers • Intended takeaways • Overviews of types of games & the game industry • Gameplay mechanics • History of game mechanics • Views of design from professional designers • 116 Slides…

  4. Playing is older than games • Playing done in many animal species • Training • Passing knowledge • Determining social rang • First way to negate • Possible between species • Communication non-verbal

  5. First Games?- First suspect: Sport • Ritualized forms of other activities • Running • Wrestling • Archery • Gameplay features • Produce a measure of physical skill by competition against other person

  6. First Games?- Second suspect: Divination • Randomizers • Objects used for divination • Evidence • Staves found in Tutankhamen’s tomb (~1323 BC) together with gameboard • Similar staves found in the royal tombs at Ur together with another gameboard • Mentioned in the Rig Veda (~1500 BC) • Gameplay features • Produce a random outcomewithin well-defined limits and clear states Source: Parlett, David, The Oxford History of Board Games, Oxford University Press, 1999

  7. First Organized Games • Funerals • Gladiators • Religious festivals • Olympic Games, 776 BC • Judges • Truces between countries, • Participants status as religious pilgrims • Gladiator Games • Celebrate battles at funeral • Changed when Julius Caesar organized one in honor of his dead daughter

  8. Dice Games • Inventors • Lydians of Asia according to Herodotus • Predecessors • Binary Lots • Astragals • Depicted ~800 BC • Gameplay features • Provide variety of rangesfor randomizers and tie results to abstract measures – numbers • Meta game– betting on outcome (but equally possible from sports) • Will of the gods - not taxed!

  9. Board Games • Origins • traced to keeping track of player’s scores in dice games • Gameplay features • Introduced game token to maintain game state • Linked series of actionsto randomized values to manipulate game state

  10. Racing games • Interpreting movement on board as physical movement • Ludo (from Pachisi, ~700 BC) • Backgammon (from Senet & Mehen, 2650+ BC) • Gameplay features • Introduction of the concept of a game world • Introduction of several game tokens controlled by one player introduced choice • Capturing other tokens meant that effects of changing one part of the game state by have additional effects – abstract events

  11. Card Games • Background intertwined with Dominoes & Mah-Jong tiles • Modern variants probably Persian origin • Brought to Europe by Arabs 13th century • Specialized decks quite late • Gameplay features • Game systems • Bipartisan • Random but fixed distribution • Defined Game Space

  12. Collectable Card Games • Combines card games with idol cards • Magic: the gathering • Illuminati: new world order • Pokémon Trading Card Game • Gameplay features • Cards have self-contained rules within a rule framework • Players trade game elements • Earlier example? • Physical rarity affects valueof game token • Time-limited functionalityof cards • Dominion & Thunderstone show a “return” development of CCGs

  13. Perfect Information Games • Removal of randomness from board games • Chess (referred ~600 AD) • Go (from Wei-qi, 2000 BC) • Gameplay features • 2D game world • Focus on mental skills • Actions defined by tokens • Context-dependent actions • Functionally different tokens • Possible to predict opponent • Additional goals based on space control, space filling, connection, and collection

  14. Side note – Perfect Information Racing Games • No known examples of evolved variants • Design Variants • Bantu, 1955 • Hare & Tortoise, 1974

  15. Imperfect Information Games • Making part of the game state unknown to players • Stratego • Battleship • Blind Chess • Gameplay features • Hidden game state • Heterogeneous information availability

  16. Skill Games • Board games where movement is determined by successful action or performance • Scrabble • Trivial Pursuit • Pictionary • “Normality Game” • Balderdash (Rappakalja) • Apples to Apples • Gameplay features • Introduction of variety of skills– social, artistic

  17. Kriegsspiel | Wargames • Train Prussian officers • Developed by von Reiswitz 1812-1824 • Gameplay Features • Need of game facilitatorsfor gameplay to commerce • Improvised rules by game facilitators

  18. Tabletop or Miniature Games • Origins in forms of kriegspiel • Similar to board games but use graphically depicted miniatures • Warhammer • Warhammer 40K • Gameplay features • Continuous game world • Players own game tokensthey use • Requires players to do extra-game activities

  19. Roleplaying Games • Expansion from miniature games • Dungeons & Dragons, 1974 • The Basic Roleplaying System • GURPS • Gameplay features • Unclear winning conditions • Unclear end conditions • campaigns • Game master • Unequal power structure • Open-ended rule set • Mediates the Game World • Character development • Roleplaying • Novel narrative structure – adventure modules • D&D 3rd edition introduced Open Gaming License and d20 Trademark License • D&D 4th edition will include online support

  20. Live-Action Roleplaying Games • Arose from roleplaying games, improvisational theatre and re-enactment societies • Earlier similar activities • re-enactments of battles between Osiris and Seth in ancient Egypt • ‘carrousel’ games at European courts during the 17th and 18th centuries • psychoanalytic methods in the 1920s • Gameplay features • Players represent their characters • Players physically act outwhat they do in the game • Extra-game activitiesmay take a majority of time spent

  21. Novelty Games • Machines that provide gameplay or lets players test skills • Gameplay features • Coin-op • Machine controls game flow

  22. Pinball • Reaction to games being banned due to being used for gambling • Gameplay features • Flippers • Electro-mechanical game system

  23. Computer Games

  24. Spacewar! - 1962 • Stephen "Slug" Russell, MIT • DEC PDP-1 assembler in 1962 • Demonstrate the Type 30 Precision CRT Display • “It should demonstrate as many of the computer's resources as possible, and tax those resources to the limit; • Within a consistent framework, it should be interesting, which means every run should be different; • It should involve the onlooker in a pleasurable and active way -- in short, it should be a game.”

  25. Tennis for Two - 1958 • William Higinbotham • Demonstrate system • Analog computer • Real-time game

  26. A.S. Douglas - 1952 • Part of Ph.D. thesis in Human-Computer Interaction • Tic-Tac-Toe • Play by dialing numbers • Computer opponent • Emulator • http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~edsac/

  27. Ralph Baer - 1951 • Asked to Build the best television set in the world. • Built in several prototypes between 1966-1968 • Hand controller and light gun • Use of sensor • Magnavox signed an agreement in 1971 and the first video game system got released in May 1972: Odyssey

  28. Computer Space – 1970Back to Spacewar • Nolan Bushnell decided to commercialize Spacewar • Stand-alone machine • Circuit board for Single-player version (Breakout) was developed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak…

  29. Nolan Bushell - 1972 • Atari • syzygy • Pong • Arcade version, 1972 • TV-console, 1975 • Difficulties getting bank loans due to association with pinball and mafia

  30. Pong vs. Pong? • In 1972, Magnavox sued Atari • Patents on electronic games & electronic ping-pong • Settled out of court • $700,000 paid-up license • Later, other companies had to pay royalties

  31. Coin-eaters • 1974 to 1975 • 57 games are released. • 1976 • 53 videogames by 15 companies • First controversy • Death Race 2000

  32. Vector Graphics • Space Wars, 1977 • Cinematronics • pong clone maker • Speed Freak, 1977

  33. Coin shortage • Taito, known for pachinko games • Space Invaders, 1978

  34. Improvements & Variants • Atari Football, Atari, 1978 • Screen down • Asteroids, Atari, 1978 • Initials and High Score • Galaxian, Namco, 1979 • 8-bit color • Stratovox, Taito, 1980 • Speech sound

  35. Platform Games • Pac-Man, Namco, 1981 • Moru Iwatani • Donkey Kong, Nintendo, 1981 • Shigeru Miyamoto • Introduced Mario & Donkey Kong

  36. Game Brains & Cartridges • Fairchild • Fairchild VES, 1976 • Atari VCS • Simple Hardware • No screen buffer • Third Party Developers • Activision, 1979 • Sued by Atari

  37. Home Computers • Commodore • Commodore PET, 1977 • VIC 20, 1980 • Commodore 64, 1982 • Commodore Amiga, 1985 • Amiga 500, 1987 • Amiga 2000, 1987 • Sinclair • ZX80, 1980 • ZX81, 1981 • ZX Spectrum, 1982 • Etc. etc. etc.

  38. Crash of Arcade Games • Transition Cycles • 6-8 years • Atari Hubris • E.T. games buried? • Oversupply • 50+ companies • Home Consoles • Lack of Faith • Video games fad • Exception exist • Paperboy, Atari, 1984 • Gauntlet, 1985

  39. Games today Following is facts from The Entertainment Software Association (www.theesa.com) and Swedish Game Industry (www.dataspelsbranschen.se) Next: video games

  40. Who is the typical gamer?

  41. Player statistics

  42. Video Games Next: computer games

  43. Video Games – Top 20 Next: computer games sales

  44. Computer Games Next: online games

  45. Computer Games, top 20 Next: who plays?

  46. Top 10 Industry Facts (from 2009)(according to the entertainment software association) • U.S. computer and video game software sales grew 22.9 percent in 2008 to $11.7 billion – more than quadrupling industry software sales since 1996. (triple in 2008) • 68% of American households play computer or video games. (65% in 2008) • The average game player is 35 years old and has been playing games for 12 years. (no change) • The average age of the most frequent game purchaser is 39 years old. (40 in 2008) • 40% of all game players are women. In fact, women over the age of 18 represent a significantly greater portion of the game-playing population (34 ) than boys age 17 or younger (18%) (33% in 2008). • In 2009, 25% of Americans over the age of 50 played video games, an increase from 9% in 1999. (26% in 2008 but still 9%!) • 37% of heads of households play games on a wireless device, such as a cell phone or PDA, up from 20% in 2002. (36% in 2008 but still 20%) • 85% of all games sold in 2007 were rated "E" for Everyone, "T" for Teen, or "E10+" for Everyone 10+. (84% in 2008) • 92% of game players under the age of 18 report that their parents are present when they purchase or rent games. (92% in 2008) • 63% of parents believe games are a positive part of their children’s lives. (no change)

  47. Contemporary computer and video game genres

  48. Platform Games • Zelda Series • Mario Series • Both examples of franchises • Usually given as examples of good learnability • Navigationessential gameplay part

  49. Strategy • Sprung from board games • Traditional Strategy • Civilization, 1990 • Civilization IV, 2006 • Victoria, 2003 • Real-time Strategy • Dune 2, 1992 • Age of Empires, 1997 • Resource management essential gameplay part

  50. First-Person Shooters • First person perspective in 3D environments • id Software • Wolfenstein 3D, 1992 • Doom, 1993 • Quake, 1996 • Themes sprung from role-playing games… • Valve Software • Half-Life,1998 (+ Counter-Strike) • Bungie • Halo, 2001 • Often most criticized • Graphical violence (Columbine) • Navigationand shootingessential gameplay part