The Writing Process:. Paragraphs and Essays. Steps of the Writing Process. Prewriting - the stage of the process where the writer is generating ideas, formats, etc. Writing - the writing of the first rough draft
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The Writing Process: Paragraphs and Essays
Steps of the Writing Process • Prewriting - the stage of the process where the writer is generating ideas, formats, etc. • Writing - the writing of the first rough draft • Postwriting - the revising, rewriting, the editing, and the publishing parts of the process
Main Ideas Stated topic sentences Implied topic sentences Paragraphs
Support • Examples • Facts/Statistics • Description (Sensory details) • Anecdotes • Reasons • Quotations • Expert testimony
Clinchers summarize or emphasize main ideas, usually by paraphrasing.
Essays • Thesis statements • Body • Conclusion
Essay Format (Frame) • Second Major Idea • Detail • Detail • Detail • Introduction/Thesis Statement • First Major Idea Third Major Idea • Detail - Detail • Detail - Detail • Detail - Detail
Conclusion • Conclusion • Summarize/paraphrase main points • Reach a conclusion • Use a quotation • Ask a question • Do NOT put new information in conclusion.
Thesis • Thesis is the central idea of the essay. • It should be specific, arguable, and interesting. • Usually, it should be the last sentence in the introductory paragraph.
Body of the Paper • Paragraph 1 - Supports earliest part of the thesis. • Paragraph 2 - Supports the middle section of the thesis. • Paragraph 3 - Supports the latter part of the thesis.
ConclusionSummarizes the key points made in the thesis and supporting paragraphs.Do not bring new information into the conclusion.
Sample Thesis Statement The character Ethan Frome from the novel of that name by Edith Wharton is responsible, intelligent, and caring.
Ethan Frome’s Character • Ethan Frome is responsible. • Leaves college to care for parents • Works to pay off their debts • Cares for Zeena when she is “ill” • Helps take care of Mattie after the “smash-up”
Ethan is intelligent. • Education • High school graduate • One year technical college • Harmon Gow: “Most of the smart ones get away.” • Love of science and astronomy
Ethan is a caring man. • Returns to Starkfield, even though … • Cares for his family • Refuses to leave Zeena unable to support herself • Touched when Mrs. Hale says he has had a hard life • Endures year after year
Concluding Paragraph Although he undergoes great difficulties in his life, the character Ethan Frome in Edith Wharton’s novel Ethan Frome exhibits the qualities of being dutiful, hungry for knowledge, and kind.
Paraphrasing in Conclusion • Paraphrase thesis statement • Paraphrase topic sentence of paragraph 1 of the body • Paraphrase topic sentence of paragraph 2 of the body • Paraphrase topic sentence of paragraph 3 of body, etc….. • Add 1 sentence to tie everything together.
Literary Analysis • Write in present tense. • Name the work and the author in the introduction! • Introduction --Introduces the literary work and includes a clear thesis statement that introduces the interpretation. • Body -- Support, Support, Support with evidence from the literary work. • Conclusion -- Summarizes the interpretation. • Do not use 1st or 2nd person pronouns.
Literary Interpretation • Introduction -- Introduces the literary work and includes a clear thesis statement that introduces the interpretation • Body -- Supports, supports, supports,etc. the interpretation with evidence from the literary work • Conclusion -- Renames the work and author as it summarizes the interpretation