Biometrics Stephen Schmidt Brian Miller Devin Reid
What are Biometrics? • Biometrics is the study of uniquely identifying humans based solely on intrinsic physical traits. • Biometric technology can be used as a method of authentication, based on an individuals unique characteristics.
How Biometrics Work • First an individual registers with the system • The information is the processed by a numerical algorithm, and entered into a database • Every time a user tries to gain access to the system, or authenticate, the biometric needs to be recaptured and processed into a digital template • This new Biometric template is then compared with the original template using hamming distance • Hamming distance is the comparison of how similar two bit strings are
Why use Biometrics? • ''The password is becoming obsolete and hackable'' • Mike Miley, vice president of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) • Convenience • Different Methods perceived as more secure • May actually be more secure • Useful as a deterrent • Passive Identification
Downside of Biometrics • COST • Biometrics vs. Smartcards • Still working out the kinks • Error rate for some biometrics is still high • In 5 years Biometrics will be widely used
Biometric Authentication • Many different Biometrics may be used for Authentication: • Facial Recognition • Hand Geometry • Iris Scanner • Speech Recognition • Fingerprint Scanner • DNA Analysis
Facial Recognition • Every face has numerous distinguishable landmarks that make up facial features, these landmarks are defined as nodal points, there are 80 nodes. • These are some of the most common nodes • Distance Between the eyes • Width of the nose • Depth of the eye sockets • Shape of cheek bones • Length of jaw line
Hand Geometry • Hand Geometry less unique than other traits, such as fingerprint or iris scans. • This is why schools, and not high security areas tend to use hand geometry • It provides user authentication, not user identification • They operate by using a digital camera and light, a camera takes a picture of your hand and its shadow, and analyzes it to make a numerical template
Iris Scanner • Some people confuse iris scans with retina scans, retinal scans are an older technology that requires a bright light to illuminate a person’s retina, a sensor would take a picture of the blood vessel located in the back of the eye. • Some people found this procedure invasive, and peoples retinas change as they age.
Iris Scanner cont. • A simple digital camera that uses both visible and near-infrared light that takes a clear high contrast picture of a persons iris. With near-infrared light the pupil appears very-black making it easy for a computer to differentiate between the pupil and the iris. • When the camera takes a picture it locates: • The center of the pupil, the edge of the pupil, the edge of the iris, eyelids and eyelashes • A chance of mistaking one iris code for another is 1 in 1078 • It also allows for more then 200 points of reference
Speech Recognition • This is currently the only biometric that provides remote authentication • Speech recognition captures a person’s voice, the physical characteristics of the vocal track and its harmonic and resonant frequencies. • It then compared it with a stored voice print, created during an enrollment process.
Fingerprint Scanner • No two fingerprints are exactly alike • Scanners operate in one of two ways: • Taking a high resolution image of the fingerprint • Capacitance Scanner, scans the finger for conductance on different locations. • To compare fingerprints, the system compares specific features, rather then the entire print. Typically focus is put on point where ridgelines end or ridges spilt. • Collectively these points are referred to as minutiae • The scanner recognizes these features, and compares the relative positions to one another • To get a match, the entire print does not need to match; just a per-specified number of matches must occur.
DNA Analysis • DNA is the least useful for biometric authentication, but most useful for biometric identification • Examiners have to extract DNA from cells, quantify the DNA, and amplify the DNA using PMR. • DNA Samples are then compared • The probability of two people having the same DNA profile, is about 1 in 1 billion
Comparing Biometrics • Biometrics may be compared by the following: • Universality describes how commonly a biometric is found in each individual. • Uniqueness is how well the biometric separates one individual from another. • Permanence measures how well a biometric resists aging. • Collectability explains how easy it is to acquire a biometric for measurement. • Performance indicates the accuracy, speed, and robustness of the system capturing the biometric. • Acceptability indicates the degree of approval of a technology by the public in everyday life. • Circumvention is how hard it is to fool the authentication system.
The Future of Biometrics • Currently biometrics only cover user authentication, and slowly provide user identification. • Biometrics cannot provide user confidentiality • This is because: • Biometric information is too easily compromised • The encryption algorithm must be private, in order to keep 3rd party users from generating your key from your biometric.