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Ireland-2 contrasting regions. BMW-IRELAND’S PERIPHERAL REGION. BMW-Borders, M idlands and the West pg.296. 13 counties Quarter of I relands population-1,132,090 48% of the land area Low population density(25/30 km) High dependency on the primary sector

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ireland 2 contrasting regions

Ireland-2 contrasting regions


bmw borders m idlands and the west pg 296
BMW-Borders, Midlands and the West pg.296
  • 13 counties
  • Quarter of Irelands population-1,132,090
  • 48% of the land area
  • Low population density(25/30 km)
  • High dependency on the primary sector
  • Underdeveloped transport infrastructure
  • Low employment in the services-tertiary sector
bmw cont
BMW cont.
  • Few urban centres-largest is Galway
  • Unemployment is above the national average
  • Industrial development is based on multinational companies
  • Area has good economic potential-little congestion,unspoiltenvironment,areas of natural beauty
physical processes climate relief soils and drainage
Physical processes-climate,relief,soils and drainage.


  • Cool temperate oceanic,(maritime)
  • Mild winters (6 degrees)
  • Warm summers(15 degrees)
  • Rainfall through the year(1,500mm)
  • Southwesterly prevailing winds-relief rain.
  • The influence of the sea-reducing summer temperatures,increasing winter-(onshore,offshore breezes.)
climate cont
Climate cont.
  • North Atlantic Drift(warm ocean current)-keeping coasts ice free.
  • Frontal depressions-moving from west to east-frontal rain
relief and drainage
Relief and drainage
  • Relief along the coastline is mountainous-metmorphic rock-Bluestack,Nephin beg, Twelve pins,Mweelrea
  • Lowland areas around Roscommon,part of the drumlin belt(glaciation) boulder clay soils.
  • Laois, Offaly ,Westmeath-poorly drained boglands ,thin soils.
  • Main rivers-Shannon,Moy,Clare
  • Mostly poor quality and infertile.
  • Peat, gley and podzols.
  • Heavy rain means leaching and hardpans.
  • Soils are shallow due to glacial erosion.
  • Midlands have some fertile brown earth soils
primary economic activities agriculture
Primary economic activities-agriculture
  • Subsistence,unproductive,unprofitable
  • Lack of mechanisation
  • Farmers are old and conservative
  • Farms are small and fragmented
  • Wet climate,varied relief and poor soils are an obstacle to commercial farming.
  • Most farmers get EU grants,subsidies-68% of farming incomes
  • Part-time farmers-forestry,fishing,agri-tourism,industry
main types of farming practised
Main types of farming practised:
  • Pastoral-main activity-mountains,2m sheep in Galway,Mayo
  • Poultry,mushrooms in the border counties
  • Cattle on boulder clay soils
  • Arable limited due to poor soils,climate.
  • Grass the most widely grown crop-feedlivestock
primary cont fishing aquaculture
Primary cont.Fishing ,Aquaculture

Key source of employment in the B.M.W-directly and indirectly.


  • Rich fishing grounds-North Atlantic.
  • N.A.D-warm water,variety of fish.
  • Shallow sea,continental shelf-rich in plankton-micro organism fish feed on.
  • Indented coastline-sheltered harbours
fishing cont
Fishing cont.
  • Killybegs(donegal)-chief fishing port in Ireland.
  • Fishing and related activities worth €50m to the local economy.
  • Seafood processing sector-1,403 employees
  • Centre of Irish open ocean fleet-200 miles off coast.
  • Factory ships-herring,mackeral-1,000 people employed
aquaculture fish farming
Aquaculture-fish farming
  • Salmon,shellfish,mussels,oysters.
  • Clew Bay,killaryharbour,worth €13m in2001.
  • 2,000 employed in Galway,Mayo
  • 60% of B.I.M(Bordiascaighmhara) funding for training in aquaculture,processing and catching is spent in the B.M.W.
human processes population
Human processes:population
  • Certain areas suffer from rural deprivation-unemployment,low education skills etc.
  • Low pop,. Density-less than 20 per km²
  • Scattered rural population
  • Braindrain-high outward migration of young people/rural depopulation
  • Low birth,marriage rates.
  • High age dependency ratio(pop aged under15 and over 65)
planning to reduce the imbalance between the core and periphery
Planning-to reduce the imbalance between the core and periphery.
  • N.D.P-national development plan
  • N.S.S-national spatial strategy-gateways and hubs pg.306/356
  • Transport 21-increase accessibility-atlantic corridor-Donegal to Waterford,Dublin- Galway inter urban motorway
  • Decentralisation
g d a greater dublin area

G.D.A.-Greater Dublin Area

Core region in Ireland

greater dublin area gda pg 307
  • Counties Dublin,Kildare,Meath and Wicklow
  • Route focus /nodal point
  • Administrative,financial capital
  • Major service centre
  • Natural resources
  • High population density/in-migration
  • Attractive to industry
secondary economic activity
Secondary economic activity
  • Factors influencing industry:

Transport-nodal point,route focus-air,rail,port,road,port tunnel,M50

Market/labour force-population of 1.3 million high pop density,youngpop.,high inward migration from Ireland and abroad,educated skilled workforce,cheap labour(foreign migrants)rich affluent market-luxury goods.

  • Variety of traditional and modern industries.
  • No single industry dominates
  • Widely dispersed
  • Due to transport industry has moved away from traditional locations in the inner city/docklands to business parks/industrial estates near the M50 and the airport eg.citywest,santry near airport
types of industry
Types of industry:
  • Knowledge based multinational companies-Microsoft,IbmIntel,RankZerox-European capital for IT.
  • Food processing-Cadburys,Jacobs(closed),Guinness,Tayto
  • Printing and publishing-independent newspapers at citywest.

Discuss the factors that have influenced the development of a secondary economic activity in an Irish region you have studied.

tertiary activities
Tertiary activities:
  • 84% of workforce involved.
  • Dublin city dominates tertiary activities-primate city.millionairecity,focal /nodal point-1.6m in region creating demand
  • Transport ,tourism,service sector-finance etc.
  • Dublin region attracts 27% of visitors to Ireland
  • Tourism earns 1billion for region
  • 2009 5.5m tourists visited Dublin
  • Year round business
  • Dublin main point of entry-90% all visitors land at Dublin airport
  • 2003 Europes third most popular city break destination
where do they go
Where do they go?
  • GDA tourist attractions are many and varied-culture,shopping,night life ,sporting,historical
  • 8 of the states top ten attractions are in Dublin:Guinnessstorehouse,dublinzoo,book of kells,Dublincastle,National museum
  • Outside Dublin:Newgrange,Curragh,Nationalstud,Glendalough Wicklow
tertiary transport pg265
  • Dublin is a route focus/nodal point
  • Gateway to Europe
  • Dublin has the most efficient transport system in the country
  • Well developed public transport system

Luas - Welcome to Luas, Dublin's Light Rail Tram System.Dublin Tunnel : | M50 Motorway | M50 Toll Charges | M50 InformationDublin - Dublinbikes

transport variety of methods
Transport-variety of methods
  • Road:Dublin is a route focus the centre of Ireland’s road network-N4,N6,N7,M1,M50-port tunnel,removal of toll.
  • Rail:centre of Ireland’s rail network –Heuston,Connolly,Pearsestation.Dart and Luaslines,proposed metro and extending luas(transport 21).
  • Water:Dublin is Ireland’s largest port-processes 50% of Irish trade
  • Air:Dublin airport is Ireland’s largest airport.terminal 2 in 2010
transport 21 alleviate congestion
Transport 21-alleviate congestion
  • 1997 city speed was 14km an hour
  • Port tunnel between M1 and docklands
  • M50 upgraded in 2007
  • Extension of luas and metro lines
  • Underground luas line
  • Expanding QBC,cyclepaths,and pedestrian facilities
  • Some on hold depending on funding
human processes
Human processes:
  • Population in 2006 of G.D.A =1.6m
  • More females than males.
  • G.D.A will account for 41% of total population in 2021.
  • Melting pot,multicultural city-7.2% of Dublin’s pop=foreign nationals.
  • High in migration from west of Ireland,Europe and the third world.
  • Last census translated into 13 languages.
  • Variety of religions-Hindu,Muslim,Jews,Buddists
chapter 24 the dynamics of irish regions ii the dublin region
Chapter 24: The Dynamics of Irish Regions II: The Dublin Region
  • Expanded rapidly since the 1950s
  • Zone of influence is now a large proportion of the Eastern half of the country
  • Dominant primate city
  • Founded by the Vikings in the ninth century
  • Low-lying land at the mouth of Dublin Bay
  • Bridging point
  • Centre of trade and administration
  • Focus of road and rail networks
chapter 24 the dynamics of irish regions ii the dublin region1
Chapter 24: The Dynamics of Irish Regions II: The Dublin Region
  • City has expanded due to influx of foreign migrants and rural to urban migration
  • Wide variety of educational and healthcare services
  • Excellent communications systems
  • Modern telecommunication services
  • 1970s uncontrolled expansion of the city
  • Planners designed and created newtowns on Dublin’s rural-urbanfringe, e.g. Blanchardstown
chapter 24 the dynamics of irish regions ii the dublin region2
Chapter 24: The Dynamics of Irish Regions II: The Dublin Region
  • People continually leaving the city to live within commutable distance as house prices in the city are still up to €100,000 more expensive than in the rest of the country
  • 2007 a new town to the west developed – Adamstown
  • People move to Kildare, Meath and Wicklow and commute to the city for work
  • Massive traffic congestion
  • Workers live as far away as Carlow(90 km) from the city centre
chapter 24 the dynamics of irish regions ii the dublin region3
Chapter 24: The Dynamics of Irish Regions II: The Dublin Region
  • Newly dispersed Dublin City: three new county councils – Dun Laoghaire, Fingal and South Dublin county councils – were created
  • Dublin Corporation is responsible for issues such as water, sewage and other public services
  • Irish government – National Spatial Strategy (NSS) to combat the growth of Dublin by establishing gateways, e.g. Galway and hubs, e.g. Kilkenny
  • Encourage development in the gateway and hub locations in the Dublin region
the growth of an urban area in an irish region you studied
The growth of an urban area in an Irish region you studied.
  • Core region points
  • History
  • Urban problems
  • Future