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  1. Cell Cycle By: Devin Marion Main CREDITS

  2. MAIN MENU Plant Cell MITOSIS (Cell Cycle) Animal Cell DNA Replication QUIZ!!! Mutations DEFINITIONS Title CREDITS

  3. Plant Cell • Here is a review of what a plant cell looks like. • Note it has a cell wall unlike an animal cell and a large vacuole. • Mitosis occurs in the nucleus. Main

  4. Animal Cell Doesn’t have a cell wall like a plant cell and has more of a round shape. Like the plant cell replication occurs in the nucleus. Main

  5. Mitosis (Cell Cycle) • Five stages of mitosis 1. Interphase 2. Prophase 3. Metaphase 4. Anaphase 5. Telophase Main Next

  6. Interphase • Before cell division can start the cell must undergo interphase. During interphase the cell makes copies of all its genetic information. • Interphase has 3 stages • G1 phase: Normal cell function and storing up proteins and nutrients. • S (synthesis) phase: cell duplicates its DNA. • G2 Phase: resuming normal growth and preparing for division. • NOTE: Interphase is the longest phase of mitosis S Phase: Main Next Previous

  7. Prophase • In prophase, the chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes. The nuclear envelope breaks down and spindles form at opposite "poles" of the cell. • Chromatin fibers become coiled into chromosomes with each chromosome having two chromatids joined at a centromere. • Mitotic spindle begins to form. Main Next Previous

  8. Metaphase • Broken Down in two parts: • Prometaphase: • Transition from prophase to metaphase. • Nuclear envelope breaks up and the mitotic spindles can move in. • Kinetochores develop on the chromosomes so the chromosomes can attach to mitotic spindle. • Metaphase: • Each chromosome is moved to a plane at the center of the spindle. Main Next Previous

  9. Metaphase Cont. • Prometaphase: Note the nuclear envelope is gone and the kinetochore are trying to attach to the spindles. Main Next Previous

  10. Metaphase Cont. • Metaphase: • Alignment of the chromosomes • Now attached to spindles Main Next Previous

  11. Anaphase • The chromatids separate at the centromeres and each chromatid is pulled to the opposite pole. Each chromosome breaks into two parts (chromatid). Both pieces are exact copies of each other (sister chromatids). Main Next Previous

  12. Anaphase cont. • Here is a video to better show anaphase. Main Next Previous

  13. Telophase • In telophase, the new daughter nuclei and nuclear envelopes start to reform and the chromosomes uncoil. Cleavage furrow also occurs during this step indicating the beginning of cytokinesis. Main Next Previous

  14. Telophase • Cytokinesis: cell pinches together and divides into two separate cells. Animal Cell Plant Cell In plants, cytokinesis begins with a series of vesicles that form at the equator of the cell, which subsequently join until the cell is divided in two. Main Next Previous

  15. Telophase Video Main Next Previous

  16. Mitosis Video Review • A quick video to show all the stages in action together. Main Previous

  17. Definitions • Mitosis- the usual method of cell division, characterized typically by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates longitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being retained in each of two new cells resulting from the original cell. • Interphase- the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions. Main Next

  18. Definitions cont. • Prophase- the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes. • Prometaphase- The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the nuclear membrane disintegrates, the centrioles reach the poles of the cell, and the chromosomes continue to contract. • Metaphase- the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle. Main Next Previous

  19. Definitions cont. • Anaphase- the stage in mitosis or meiosis following metaphase in which the daughter chromosomes move away from each other to opposite ends of the cell. • Telophase- the final stage of cell division, in which daughter cell nuclei form around chromosomes at opposite ends of the dividing mother cell. • Cytokinesis- the division of the cell cytoplasm that usually follows mitotic or meiotic division of the nucleus. Main Next Previous

  20. Definitions cont. • Chromosomes-any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order. • Centromere-a specialized structure on the chromosome, appearing during cell division as the constricted central region where the two chromatids are held together and form an X shape. • Chromatids-one of two identical chromosomal strands into which a chromosome splits longitudinally preparatory to cell division. Main Next Previous

  21. Definitions cont. • Mitotic spindle-The fusiform figure characteristic of a dividing cell, consisting of microtubules, some of which become attached to each chromosome at its centromere and provide the mechanism for chromosomal movement. • nuclear envelope- the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell. • DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid: an extremely long macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers genetic characteristics in all life forms, constructed of two nucleotide strands coiled around each other in a ladderlike arrangement Main Previous

  22. Mutations • Please choose a genetic disorder caused by DNA mutations from the list provided… more on next page…Come up to me to sign up for a mutation only 2 students per option!! • Angelman syndrome • Canavan disease • Color blindness • Cystic fibrosis • Down syndrome • Duchenne muscular dystrophy Main Next

  23. Mutations • Haemophilia • Klinefeltersyndrome • Sickle-cell disease • Tay–Sachs disease • Turner syndrome • Crohn's disease Main Next Previous

  24. Mutations • After you have chosen the genetic disorder from the list you must write a 2 paragraph paper (8-10) sentences. • Paper must include: • Definition of the disease • How it is acquired • Treatment or cures if any • How it ties into mitosis • Use time in computer lab to research. Main Previous

  25. Quiz • What is the longest stage of mitosis? • Prophase • Interphase • Anaphase • Cytokinesis Main

  26. Quiz • Which is the correct order of mitosis? • Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. • Interphase, metaphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase. • Metaphase, interphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase. • Metaphase, interphase, prophase, anaphase, cytokinesis. Main

  27. Quiz • Which stage of mitosis is depicted? • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Telophase Main

  28. Quiz 4. Which stage of mitosis is depicted? • Prophase • Telophase • Prometaphase • Anaphase Main

  29. Quiz 5. True or False: Cytokinesis is part of telophase? • True • False Main

  30. Quiz 6. At what stage of mitosis do the chromatids separate at the centromeres and each chromatid is pulled to the opposite pole. • Telophase • Prophase • Anaphase • Metaphase Main

  31. Quiz 7. What is the difference between cytokinesis of a plant cell versus an animal cell? • plant cells start dividing from top to bottom. • Series of vesicles which join until the cell is divided. • A cell wall forms down the middle to separate into two cells. • Trick question…no difference Main

  32. Quiz 8. How many students can be assigned to a specific disorder? See if you read the instructions! • 1 • 2 • 3 • No limit Main

  33. Correct!!! Main Next

  34. Correct!!! Main Next

  35. Correct!!! Main Next

  36. Correct!!! Main Next

  37. Correct!!! Main Next

  38. Correct!!! Main Next

  39. Correct!!! Main Next

  40. Correct!!! Main Finish

  41. Wrong!!! Back

  42. Wrong!!! Back

  43. Wrong!!! Back

  44. Wrong!!! Back

  45. Wrong!!! Back

  46. Wrong!!! Back

  47. Wrong!!! Back

  48. Wrong!!! Back

  49. Credits • • • • • • • • • • • Main Next

  50. Credits Cont. • • • • • • • • • • Main Next Previous