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No Child Left Behind: Considerations for the Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Martha Thurlow and Sandra Thompson National Center on Educational Outcomes University of Minnesota. No Child Left Behind.

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no child left behind considerations for the assessment of students with disabilities
No Child Left Behind:Considerations for the Assessment of Students with Disabilities

Martha Thurlow and Sandra Thompson

National Center on Educational Outcomes

University of Minnesota

slide2

No Child Left Behind

. . . a reauthorization of ESEA continuing in the context of the standards-based reform movement . . .with an emphasis on system accountability

purpose of no child left behind
Purpose of No Child Left Behind

“…to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic assessments”

slide4

NCLB does NOT require student accountability

(e.g., graduation exams

to get a diploma)

  • NCLB does require SYSTEM level accountability to ensure that all students learn to high levels.
slide5

Requirements

  • State standards for what a child should know in math and reading now, and in science by 2005-06
  • Test every student's progress toward the standards. Beginning in 2005-06, test in grades 3 through 8 and once in high school in math and reading. Beginning in 2007-08, science achievement must also be tested.
slide6

Under NCLBAssessments shall provide for…

  • Participation of all students
  • Reasonable adaptations and accommodations for students with disabilities (IDEA & 504), and alternate assessment
  • Inclusion of limited English proficient students with accommodations, including, if practicable, native-language versions of the assessment
  • Assessment in English of reading/language arts for any student in US for 3 consecutive school years
slide8

IDEA 1997

. . . a reauthorization created within the context of the standards-based reform movement . . . with another reauthorization coming in 2003

key provisions in idea 97
Key Provisions in IDEA 97
  • Statement of present levels, needs, and how they affect involvement and progress in general curriculum
  • Annual goals and objectives to allow involvement and progress in the general curriculum
slide10

Key Provisions in IDEA 97

  • General educator collaboration
  • Assessment – full integration into standards-based reform

The key provisions in IDEA 97 really address equity concerns – access to common standards, challenging curriculum, and effective instruction

slide11

How do IDEA and NCLB “fit together?”

NCLB

Requirements

IDEA

Requirements

Together, they require us to address content standards, achievement standards, assessment and access to the general curriculum

slide12

Assumptions that underlie both NCLB and IDEA point to the benefits of standards-based systems for all students

  • All children can learn
  • We need to be responsible for the learning of all children
slide13

Standards-Based Reform Context

High Standards

All Students

--- Everything else is negotiable ---

schedules, place, time, structure, curriculum, instructional methods, methods of assessment. . .

AcCOUNTability

slide14

This is SO important …

“It is not possible to predict which children will be in the top half of the achievement distribution at any given level of general intelligence.”

Kevin McGrew (2003)

slide15

IQ=75 + 5

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140 150 160

Child A in School

What should our expectations

be for “Child in School” in reading?

slide16

Educators’ views of expected reading achievement performance based on IQ of 75

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BRS

Basic Rdg Skills SS (for GIA SS = 70-80)

slide17

Regression-based expected score

Where will most of the Child A’s of the world achieve in reading?

How can this be ?

40

50

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BRS

Basic Rdg Skills SS (for GIA SS = 70-80)

slide18

“For most students with below average IQ scores, it is NOT possible to predict individual levels of expected achievement with the degree of accuracy that would be required to deny a student the right to high standards/expectations.”

Kevin McGrew (2003)

http://www.iapsych.com/iapdirector.htm

slide19

Data Are Emerging

New York Regents Exam, 2001: Number of students with disabilities passing is higher than the number taking in the past

Trend data across grades in large southern state – special education population changes over time mask closing of gap between special education and general education students

slide20

Recent article in the Boston Globe (December 22, 2002)

Katie Bartlett has spent all of her 17 years exceeding the expectations the world placed on her when she was born with Down syndrome. . . .Still no one was quite sure what would happen when Bartlett took the MCAS exam, now a requirement for a high school diploma in Massachusetts.

This is what happened: She passed

slide21

Critical Assessment Issues

  • Decision Making
  • Accommodations
  • Universally Designed Assessments
  • Alternate Assessments
slide22

3 Ways to Participate in Assessments

  • Same way as other students
  • With accommodations
  • In an Alternate Assessment

But, this does not mean that it is simple

decisions and the iep team
Decisions and the IEP team

The IEP team has authority to make decisions. . .

But this does not mean that it is simple

  • WHO needs to be part of the discussion?
  • WHAT external opportunities and constraints must be considered?
  • IMPLICATIONS of decisions must be identified and discussed, recorded, and reconsidered each year.
slide24

Accommodations

Accommodations are changes in instructional and assessment materials or procedures that allow the student’s knowledge and skills to be developed and assessed.

Accommodations provide students with disabilities access to instruction and assessments, so that ALL can have access, participate, and make progress . . .

slide25

Good Accommodations Decisions

  • Start with good instructional decisions
  • Systematic questions about accommodations for individual students
  • Collection of data to aid decision making

What helps student learn or perform better?

What has student or parents told you?

What gets in the way of the student showing skills?

What has the student been taught to use?

slide26

Setting

Presentation

Study carrel

Repeat directions

Small group

Large print edition

Individualized

Braille edition

Timing

Response

Extended time

Mark test booklet

Frequent breaks

Word processor

Unlimited time

Use references

Types of Accommodations

Scheduling

Other

Specific time of day

Test preparation

Subtests in different order

Out-of-level

Across multiple days

Motivational cues

research questions
Research Questions
  • Student instruction?
  • Student and teacher perceptions?
  • Student selection?
data collection strategies
Data Collection Strategies
  • IEP reviews (n=14)
  • Teacher provided student data (n=65)
  • Face-to-face interviews
  • Conducted on-site in the schools
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Instructed below grade of enrollment
  • Not reported in accountability programs
  • Test scores not usable for instructional decisions
  • Policy implementation inconsistencies
  • Lacked understanding of future effects
slide31

Definitional Issues

Some accommodations are considered to change what is assessed, and others are viewed as “ok” –

But the terms used to describe what is and isn’t “ok” vary across the states and districts.

Know what terms mean in your state and district!

slide32

Stay on top of the literature at:

http://education.umn.edu/NCEO/ AccomStudies.htm

[NCEO’s online accommodations bibliography with search features]

slide33

Is the the choice of accommodations appropriate?

  • Aligned with instructional accommodations, but not an excuse not to teach
  • Student needs it to demonstrate knowledge and skills – or to participate in assessment
  • Implications of using this accommodation have been identified and carefully considered
  • Not determined by test publisher, but by student need, what is being measured (construct), and the purpose of the test
slide34

Legal Cases Are Changing Views About Accommodations

Oregon – a new view of accommodations (innocent until proven guilty)

California – cannot require a special waiver to use needed accommodations

slide35

Oregon Case

“Accommodations shall be considered allowable, valid, and scorable if they are used during instruction1 or classroom assessment and are listed on a student’s IEP or Section 504 plan, unless ODE can show that the accommodation invalidates the score interpretation.2 Rather than consider all accommodations first invalid until proven valid, ODE shall consider all accommodations valid unless ODE can show that the accommodation would invalidate the score interpretation.”

Oregon ASK Settlement Agreement

slide36

California Case

U.S. District Judge Charles R. Breyer said the state may administer its first mandatory statewide high school exit exam this week as planned. But he ruled that special education students can be afforded any testing accommodation that they have been determined to need, including the use of calculators, spell- checkers, or extra time, during the testing set for March 5-7…. The judge has yet to rule on how the state should grade the tests of students with disabilities, as well as other contentious issues.

Education Week, March 6, 2002

slide37

Issues:

  • Tendency to allow too many accommodations, possibly reducing expectations for student learning.
  • Poor decision making about accommodations, reflecting lack of knowledge about instructional accommodations.
  • Use of accommodations as an excuse to exclude students scores on reports or accountability.
slide38

Promising Practices:

  • States keeping track of how many students use accommodations and which ones.
  • Out-of-the-box thinking about the use of accommodated test scores.
  • Clear decision-making criteria (e.g., alignment to instructional accommodations) and training on how to make decisions.
  • Teaching students about the tests they take and about the accommodations that they need.
slide39

Recommendations for IEP Teams

  • Develop a process for making decisions about accommodation use
  • Choose accommodations based on individual student needs and preferences
  • Teach students to use selected accommodations routinely in the classroom, at home, and in the community – evaluate effectiveness
slide40

Recommendations for IEP Teams

  • Know state/district accommodations policies
  • Give students opportunities to use selected accommodations on practice tests
  • Make sure test administrators know about accommodations a student will use
  • Record accommodations use accurately on test booklet (or other form)
slide41

Individualized accommodation decisions should be linked to what is being assessed, access tools a student uses for learning, and the student’s characteristics

FOR EXAMPLE:

Purposeful reading – reading to select and apply relevant information for a given task

Does this allow different ways of interacting with print? And, what are the implications for accommodations?

slide42

The “door” we need to go through: What is meant by ‘reading’ What about ‘literacy?’

The answer(s) to these questions will determine the accommodations that can be used when certain content standards are taught and assessed!

ways to interact with print with examples of accommodations
Visual

Tactile (feeling print)

Auditory (listening to printed messages)

Multi-modal (using any combination of the above modalities)

Printed text; ASL

Article in Braille and Nemeth Codes

Listen to taped articles (Radio or TV?)

Computer-based “assistive” reading/ viewing programs– (e.g., digital talking news)

Ways to interact with print: with examples of accommodations
slide44

Moving to universally designed instruction and assessment

Universally Designed Instruction and Assessmentsare designed to be accessible and valid for the widest range of students

slide45

Think about universal design in architecture and tool design

  • Curb cuts and ramps
  • Elevators that talk to you
  • Door handles rather than knobs
  • Special pen shapes that are easier to hold
slide46

Elements of Universally Designed Assessments

  • Inclusive assessment population
  • Precisely defined constructs
  • Accessible, non-biased items
  • Amenable to accommodations
slide47

Elements of UD Assessments (continued)

  • Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and procedures
  • Maximum readability and comprehensibility
  • Maximum legibility
think aloud
“Think aloud”
  • Recently interviewed 90 students using think aloud protocol
  • 4th and 8th grade
  • Used multiple choice and constructed response items from state math test
overall observations
Overall Observations
  • Students who were confident of content did not have problems with design
  • Students who had no idea how to solve the problem did not have problems with design
  • Students “in the middle” – not sure of content, some reading difficulty, design made a difference
examples of student perceptions
Examples of Student Perceptions
  • Many students didn’t see one of the cities on a map
  • The name of one of the cities was “Independence” - uncommon meaning
  • Box between top and bottom of item – some students did not read entire item
  • Sign for parallel gave away the answer
  • Some students read fraction 3 5/8 as “35 divided by 8”
  • Students unfamiliar with settings – “Glee club does number,” “fitness club”
considerations for item review
Considerations for Item Review
  • Overall appearance is clean and organized
  • Clear format for text
  • Clear format for pictures and graphics (when essential to item)
  • Concise and readable text
  • Format allows for changes without changing meaning or difficulty
  • Meets criteria for measuring what it is intended to measure
slide53

Alternate Assessments

First introduced in IDEA 97 -

for students unable to participate in general state assessments

alternate assessments
Alternate Assessments
  • Required for school accountability decisions under NCLB
  • Reflect shifting goals for students with significant cognitive disabilities
slide55

Proposed Regulations

(Notice of Proposed Rule Making – NPRM)

  • NPRM: Alternate assessment is for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities who are 3 standard deviations below the mean on intellectual and adaptive behavior measures
  • NPRM: Up to 1% of students above can be held to alternate achievement standards
development of alternate assessments
Development of Alternate Assessments

1. Stakeholder and policymaker identification of desired student outcomes for the population, reflecting the best understanding of research and practice, thoughtfully aligned to same content expected for all students.

2. Development, testing, and refinement of assessment methods.

3. Scoring of evidence according to professionally accepted standards, against criteria that reflect understanding of desired student outcomes.

4. Standard-setting process to allow use of results in reporting and accountability systems.

5. Continuous improvement of the assessment process.

slide58

Lara’s IEP Goals Before Alternate Assessment

  • Lara will be fed
  • Lara will be cleaned up
  • Lara will be moved
slide59

Critical Functions focus on function of standard in enhancing a student’s life

  • Standard: “Student communicates ideas through speaking to various audiences”
  • Critical Function: “Communicate ideas”
  • Alternate Form: “Use augmentative and alternative communication system”
          • Kleinert & Kearns, 2001
slide60

Alternate assessments have produced dramatic changes in the education of students with disabilities

They raise expectation issues all over again!

slide61

More information?

NCEO Resources

  • Visit: http://education.umn.edu/nceo
  • or Search for NCEO
  • Web site includes:
    • Topic introduction
    • Frequently Asked Questions
    • Online and Other Resources