slavery and the african american experience in the american revolution n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Slavery and the African American Experience in the American Revolution PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Slavery and the African American Experience in the American Revolution

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 66

Slavery and the African American Experience in the American Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 219 Views
  • Uploaded on

Slavery and the African American Experience in the American Revolution. Crispus Attucks in the Mob at the “Boston Massacre,” 1770. Phillis Wheatley, Boston Slave and Published Poet. Slavery and Slave Revolt as a Cause of the American Revolution.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Slavery and the African American Experience in the American Revolution


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    slavery and slave revolt as a cause of the american revolution
    Slavery and Slave Revolt as a Cause of the American Revolution
    • Centrality of Slavery to British North America
    • Role of Slave Revolts
    • Growing Radical Abolition Movement
    • Somerset Case (1772) and Its Effects
    pre revolutionary slave revolts in british west indies
    Pre-Revolutionary Slave Revolts in British West Indies
    • 1760-1, Tacky’sRevolt in Jamaica; also revolts in 1765 and 1766.
    • Bermuda and Nevis: 1761
    • Br. Honduras: 1765, 1768, 1773
    • Grenada: 1765
    • Montserrat, 1768
    • St. Vincent, 1769-73
    • Tobago, 1770, 1771, 1774
    • St. Croix and St Thomas, 1770
    • St. Kitts, 1778
    • Use of British troops to put them down.
    pre revolutionary slave revolts in north america
    Pre-Revolutionary Slave Revolts in North America
    • 1720 South Carolina
    • 1739: Stono, South Carolina
    • 1712, 1741, New York City
    • Virginia: 1767, New Jersey 1772,
    • Eve of Revolution: 1774-75: North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, New York,
    • Use of Local Colonial Militia to put them down
    1773 petition by slaves for freedom to massachusetts assembly felix s petition
    1773 Petition by Slaves for Freedom to Massachusetts Assembly (Felix’s Petition)
    • Province of the Massachusetts Bay To His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, Esq; Governor; To The Honorable His Majesty's Council, and To the Honorable House of Representatives in General Court assembled at Boston, the 6th Day of January, 1773. The humble PETITION of many Slaves, living in the Town of Boston, and other Towns in the Province is this, namely That your Excellency and Honors, and the Honorable the Representatives would be pleased to take their unhappy State and Condition under your wise and just Consideration. We desire to bless God, who loves Mankind, who sent his Son to die for their Salvation, and who is no respecter of Persons; that he hath lately put it into the Hearts of Multitudes on both Sides of the Water, to bear our Burthens, some of whom are Men of great Note and Influence; who have pleaded our Cause with Arguments which we hope will have their weight with this Honorable Court. We presume not to dictate to your Excellency and Honors, being willing to rest our Cause on your Humanity and justice; yet would beg Leave to say a Word or two on the Subject. Although some of the Negroes are vicious, (who doubtless may be punished and restrained by the same Laws which are in Force against other of the King's Subjects) there are many others of a quite different Character, and who, if made free, would soon be able as well as willing to bear a Part in the Public Charges; many of them of good natural Parts, are discreet, sober, honest, and industrious; and may it not be said of many, that they are virtuous and religious, although their Condition is in itself so unfriendly to Religion, and every moral Virtue except Patience. How many of that Number have there been, and now are in this Province, who have had every Day of their Lives embittered with this most intollerable Reflection, That, let their Behaviour be what it will, neither they, nor their Children to all Generations, shall ever be able to do, or to possess and enjoy any Thing, no, not even Life itself, but in a Manner as the Beasts that perish. 
    felix s petition
    Felix’s Petition
    • We have no Property. We have no Wives. No Children. We have no City.No Country. But we have a Father in Heaven, and we are determined, as far as his Grace shall enable us, and as far as our degraded contemptuous Life will admit, to keep all his Commandments: Especially will we be obedient to our Masters, so long as God in his sovereign Providence shall suffer us to be holden in Bondage. It would be impudent, if not presumptuous in us, to suggest to your Excellency and Honors any Law or Laws proper to be made, in relation to our unhappy State, which, although our greatest Unhappiness, is not our Fault; and this gives us great Encouragement to pray and hope for such Relief as is consistent with your Wisdom, justice, and Goodness. We think Ourselves very happy, that we may thus address the Great and General Court of this Province, which great and good Court is to us, the best judge, under God, of what is wise, just and good. We humbly beg Leave to add but this one Thing more: We pray for such Relief only, which by no Possibility can ever be productive of the least Wrong or Injury to our Masters; but to us will be as Life from the dead. 
    somerset case
    Somerset Case

    James Somerset, slave of Charles Stewart, Virginian.

    • Somerset enslaved in Africa at age 8, purchased by British slavers, sold in Virginia to Scottish merchant Charles Stewart.
    • Stewart appointed customs collector in Boston during Stamp Act, takes S.
    • Somerset witnesses the constitutional crisis in Boston during both Stamp Act and Townshend Acts Crises.
    • Stewart goes to England with Somerset, 1769.
    • The two lived in London.
    somerset case1
    Somerset Case
    • In 1771, Somerset runs away from Stewart, seeks freedom, hiding in London free black community. About 3% of population- mostly slaves, perhaps as many as 15,000 slaves in Great Britain.
    • Stewart hires slave catchers in London to track down his property.
    • After 56 days of freedom, captured and shackled: transported to the vessel Ann and Mary about to sell for Jamaica.
    • Stewart had decided to sell his troublesome slave in Jamaica: profit, probably a form of a death sentence for Somerset.
    • Three Londoners, probably Somerset’s god parents applied directly to Mansfield for a writ of habeas corpus orders Captain Knowles to produce the body of Somerset before sailing to hear case of illegal detention and transport. Nov. 1771.
    • Sharp hears of case and hires lawyers to argue on behalf of Somerset on the King’s Bench, sees it as the test case on legality of slavery in England.
    mansfield s decision delivered orally transcribed variously
    Mansfield’s Decision (delivered orally, transcribed variously):
    • The power of a master over his slave has been different in different countries. The state of slavery is of such a nature that it is incapable of being introduced on any reasons, , moral or political, but only positive law, which preserves its force long after the reasons, occasion, and time itself form which it was created, is erased from memory. It is so odious that nothing can be suffered to support it but positive law. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may follow from a decision, I cannot say this case is allowed or approved by the law of England, and therefore the black must be discharged.
    mansfield s decision delivered orally transcribed variously1
    Mansfield’s Decision (delivered orally, transcribed variously):
    • The power of a master over his slave has been different in different countries. The state of slavery is of such a nature that it is incapable of being introduced on any reasons, , moral or political, but only positive law, which preserves its force long after the reasons, occasion, and time itself form which it was created, is erased from memory. It is so odious that nothing can be suffered to support it but positive law. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may follow from a decision, I cannot say this case is allowed or approved by the law of England, and therefore the black must be discharged.
    free blacks and slaves in the american revolution
    Free Blacks and Slaves in the American Revolution
    • Fighting for the United States
    • Fighting for the British Empire
    african americans in continental army and revolutionary militia
    African Americans in Continental Army and Revolutionary Militia
    • July 1775, George Washington forbids recruitment of any African American soldiers, but manpower needs force him in November 1775 to accept free blacks. Eventually allow slaves.
    • Up to 5000 served. In 1777, close to 10% of Continental Army was African American. The Continental Army was last racially integrated U.S. army until 1948.
    • South Carolina and Georgia forbid any slaves or free blacks to serve.
    dunmore s proclamation november 1775
    Dunmore’s Proclamation, November 1775
    • I do hereby further declare all indented Servants, Negroes, or others, (appertaining to Rebels,) free that are able and willing to bear Arms, they joining His MAJESTY'S Troops as soon as may be, for the more speedily reducing this Colony to a proper Sense of their Duty, to His MAJESTY'S Crown and Dignity.
    • GIVEN under my Hand on board the Ship WILLIAM by Norfolk, the 7th Day of November in the SIXTEENTH Year of His MAJESTY'S Reign.
    • DUNMORE
    • (GOD save the KING.)
    virginia law responding to dunmore s proclamation
    Virginia Law Responding to Dunmore’s Proclamation
    • WHEREAS lord Dunmore, by his proclamation, dated on board the ship William, off Norfolk, the 7th day of November 1775, hath offered freedom to such able-bodied slaves as are willing to join him, and take up arms, against the good people of this colony . . .that all negro or other slaves, conspiring to rebel or make insurrection, shall suffer death, and be excluded all benefit of clergy.
    reference to slaves and dunmore s proclamation in declaration of independence
    Reference to Slaves and Dunmore’s Proclamation in Declaration of Independence
    • “He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us.”
    effects of dunmore s proclamation pennsylvania evening post nov 1776
    Effects of Dunmore’s Proclamation: Pennsylvania Evening Post, Nov. 1776
    • “A gentlewoman, going along Second Street [in Philadelphia], was insulted by a Negro near Christ Church. And upon her reprimanding him for his rude behavior, the fellow replied, ‘stay you d----d white bitch, till Lord Dunmore and his black regiment come and then we will see who is to take the wall.’”
    harry washington background one of several of george washington s slaves to join the british
    Harry Washington (Background), One of Several of George Washington’s Slaves to Join the British
    clinton s philipsburg new york proclamation june 30 1779
    Clinton’s Philipsburg (New York) Proclamation, June 30, 1779
    • “But I do strictly forbid any person to sell or claim right over any Negro, the property of a rebel, who may take refuge with any part of this army: And I do promise to every Negro who shall depart the rebel standard full security to follow within these lines any occupation he may think proper.”
    henry muhlenberg pennsylvania lutheran minister overhears two northern slaves
    Henry Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania Lutheran Minister overhears two Northern slaves:
    • “they secretly wished that the British army might win, for then all Negro slaves will gain their freedom. It is said that this sentiment is almost universal among the Negroes in America.”
    scale of slave revolt under british
    Scale of Slave Revolt Under British
    • 500,000 slaves in all thirteen rebellious colonies.
    • Historians can document close to 20,000 left with evacuating British army at end of war.
    • In South Carolina with an African majority, one out of every four slaves went over to British lines. In Georgia, where Royal rule was restored briefly, three out of four slaves went to British lines.
    • Some historians have estimated that over 100,000 slaves in total ran to British lines, but Australian historian Cassandra Pybus argued that many of the numbers were reported by hysterical Revolutionary authorities such as Virginia Governor Thomas Jefferson and greatly exaggerated out of fear and desire to solidify support for Revolution. She estimates closer to 40,000 probably tried to free themselves with the British which is still close to 10% of all slaves.
    • British Army viewed by slaves as liberators. Many Americans viewed the Revolution as a war to protect slavery, property, and liberty. This was particularly the case in the deep South.
    effects of revolution
    Effects of Revolution
    • Black Loyalists and Quest for Equality
    • African Americans in the United States
      • End of Slavery in North
      • Growth of Slavery in South
      • Growth of Racism in the United States, 1789-1830
    article seven treaty of paris
    Article Seven, Treaty of Paris
    • All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Brittanic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets from the said United States.
    entry from book of negroes
    Entry From “Book of Negroes”
    • Ship Aurora bound for St. John's
    • Billy Williams, 35, healthy stout man, (Richard Browne). Formerly lived with Mr. Moore of Reedy Island, Caroline, from whence he came with the 71st Regiment about 3 years ago.
    • Rose Richard, 20, healthy young woman, (Thomas Richard). Property of Thomas Richard, a refugee from Philadelphia.
    • Daniel Barber, 70, worn out, (James Moore). Says he was made free by Mr. Austin Moore of little York nigh 20 years ago.
    • Sarah Farmer, 23, healthy young woman, (Mrs. Sharp).
    • Free Negress indented to Mrs. Sharp for one year.
    • Barbarry Allen, 22, healthy stout wench, (Humphry Winters). Property of Humphrey Winters of New York from Virginia.
    entry from book of negroes1
    Entry From “Book of Negroes”
    • Elizabeth Black, 24, mulatto from Madagascar, (Mr. Buskirk). Free, indented when nine years of age to Mrs. Courtland.
    • Bob Stafford, 20, stout healthy Negro, (Mr. Sharp). Taken from Mr. Wilkinson in Virginia by a party from the Royal Navy about four years ago.
    • Harry Covenhoven, 24, [stout healthy Negro], (Mr. Buskirk). Came in two years ago from Mr. Covenhoven in Jersey.
    • John Vans, 39, healthy, blind of his right eye, (Mr. Buskirk, Jr.). Taken in Pennsylvania a party of the British Army about 6½ years ago; lived there with Sam Barber who he says had eight months before given him his freedom.
    • Anthony Haln, 27, stout Negro, (Nicholas Beckle). His own property willed
    • Joyce, 12, healthy Negress, (James Moore). Lived with James Moore for 6 years; her father died in the King's service.
    • Simson McGuire, 223, stout healthy Negro man, (John Buskirk). Came in to General Arnold in Virginia from Benjamin Hill.
    • Bristol Cobbwine, 14, stout healthy Negro boy, (Richard Browne). Came from Woodbury, Charlestown, South Carolina, with Major Grant of the King's American regiment about 4 years ago.
    • Paul, 19, [stout] mulatto, ([Richard Browne]). Came from Woodbury, Charlestown, South Carolina, with Major Grant of the King's American regiment.
    thomas peters
    Thomas Peters
    • Born in Nigeria, 1738, enslaved by the French. In November of 1776, Thomas Peters joined the Black Pioneers, an all African American Unit in the British Army, and attained the rank of Sergeant. He migrated after the war to Nova Scotia where black veterans who were promised enough land to live only received one acre. Peters become a political leader of Canadian Black Loyalists and moves to England to petition the British Government on their behalf.
    thomas peters1
    Thomas Peters
    • In England, he meets abolitionists Granville Sharp and John Clarkson who are looking to establish a “Province of Freedom” in a new British African colony at Sierra Leone. He helps recruit Nova Scotia Black Loyalists to migrate there in 1792.
    sierra leone
    Sierra Leone
    • In Sierra Leone, Thomas Peters and other “Nova Scotians” challenges the authority of Governor John Clarkson for not living up to promises of allowing a democratic form of colonial government and not to tax black loyalists’ land there. Many want Peters to be Governor. After Peters’s death, there is a revolt against Sierra Leone Company attempts to tax the land of free colonists and the British Government brings in regulars and an army of free Maroons from Jamaica to crush the revolt. Harry Washington was one of the rebels. Royal government takes over and establishes arbitrary rule.
    early u s slavery
    Early U.S. Slavery
    • At conclusion of Revolution, many in the United States, including many prominent people in upper South believe slavery to be a “necessary evil.”
    • In the deep South, particularly Georgia and South Carolina, the Revolution was viewed as epic struggle to preserve liberty premised in property. Thus, it was a war to preserve freedom and slavery.
    end of slavery in north 1783 1861
    End of Slavery in North, 1783-1861
    • Immediate Abolition
    • Gradual Abolition
    massachusetts
    Massachusetts
    • Massachusetts slave, Mum Bett sues in state court for her freedom, her lawyers argue that slavery is unconstitutional given the 1780 Massachusetts constitution that stated: “all men are born free and equal.”
    • In 1783, Massachusetts Supreme Court declares slavery unconstitutional and Bett changes her name to Elizabeth Freeman.
    pennsylvania 1780 gradual emancipation act
    Pennsylvania 1780 Gradual Emancipation Act
    • Every Negro and Mulatto Child born within this State after the passing of this Act as aforesaid, who would in Case this Act had not been made, have been born a Servant for Years or life or a Slave, shall be deemed to be and shall be, by Virtue of this Act the Servant of such person or his or her Assigns, who would in such Case have been entitled to the Service of such Child until such Child shall attain unto the Age of twenty eight Year.
    growth of racism in antebellum period
    Growth of Racism in Antebellum Period
    • Southerners increasingly defend slavery as a “positive good.”
    • Racism becomes more oppressive in Northern and Western States
      • Pennsylvania and Connecticut rescind free black men’s rights to vote in 1830s.
      • Only New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts consistently allow black male suffrage up to Civil War.
    further reading
    Further Reading:
    • Gary Nash, The Forgotten Fifth: African Americans in the Age of Revolution (2006).
    • Cassandra Pybus, Epic Journeys of Freedom: Runaway Slaves of the American Revolution and Their Global Quest for Freedom (2006).
    • Online Resources:
    • U.K. Archives Materials on Black Loyalists: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/work_community/loyalists.htm
    • Nova Scotia Archives: http://www.novascotia.ca/nsarm/virtual/africanns/results.asp?Search=&SearchList1=2&Language=English
    • PBS: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2narr4.html