Pearson LongmanPoliticalScienceInteractive Shea, Green, and Smith Living Democracy, Second Edition Chapter 15: Political Parties
Pragmatic Party Model Parties are organizations that sponsor candidates for political office under the organization’s name in hope of controlling the apparatus of government. Responsible Party Model Parties are organizations that run candidates to shape the outcomes of government. What Is a Political Party?
Organizing the Election Process Facilitating Voter Choice Recruiting Candidates Screening Candidates Helping Candidates Organizing a Complex Government Aggregating Interests Educating Citizens Ensuring Accountability Social Functions Promoting Civic Performance Party Functions
The Components of Political Parties The Tripartite View of Parties Party-in-Government Party-in-the-Electorate Party Organization
Pathways of Action:The Contract With America • Architect: Newt Gingrich • The resulting Republican sweep of the 1994 midterm elections brought forth enormous changes in the American political landscape.
Party-in-the-Electorate Party-in-the-Electorate Every citizen who attaches him or herself to that political party
Pathways of Change From Around the World: Canada • Young Greens of Canada Party • Rely heavily on the Web to organize, using YouTube and Facebook
Realignment Theory • A “partisan realignment” takes place when a large number of voters do not return to their party in the next election. • Until 2004, it seemed that we were undergoing a “dealignment”—a movement away from party politics altogether. Are realignments a thing of the past?
Party-as-Organization Layers of the Party System Party-as-Organization The formal apparatus of the party, including party headquarters, offices, and leaders
Federalists Hamilton believed that the future of the nation lay in the cities and a strong manufacturing sector. He felt that a strong central government was the key to future growth. Jeffersonians Jefferson believed that America’s hope lay in small, agriculturally-based communities. He distrusted a strong national government. Party Eras in American History: Phase I The Arrival of Parties in America (1790s to 1828)
Party Eras in American History: Phase II • The birth of the second party system • The Civil War disruption and the reconstruction of the party system The Heyday of Parties (1828–1900)
Party Eras in American History: Phase III • Graft and bosses • The “Australian Ballot” • From the Progressives to the New Deal • The rise of candidate-centered politics Party Decline (1900 to the 1970s)
Party Eras in American History: Phase IV • Parties become “service-oriented.” • In recent years, parties have regained their footing, although it has been very expensive. Organizational Resurgence (1970s to present)
Barriers to Minor Party Success Institutional Barriers • Single member district; first-past-the-post system • Electoral College • Ballot access laws • Attitudinal Barriers • Wasted-vote syndrome
Would-be Second Parties • Anti-Masonic Party • 8 percent of the popular vote in the 1832 election • The American Party (Know-Nothings) • 21.6 of the popular vote in 1856
True Third Parties • Two minor anti-slavery parties in the 1840s • Liberty Party • Free-Soil Party • Greenback Party (1876-1884); People’s Party (1882) • American Socialist Party (1890s); Socialist Labor Party
True Third Parties • Libertarian Party • Green Party • Reform Party
Political Parties and Ideology “There isn’t a dime’s worth of difference between the two parties.” – George Wallace, 1968
The Nomination Process:Different Primary Systems Closed Primary System Only registered members of the party are allowed to vote in the primary. Open Primary System Voters are allowed to participate in the primary election without declaring membership in a party.
The Nomination Process: Presidential Nominations • National Nominating Convention • First held in 1832 • McGovern-Fraser Commission • Mandate for Reform • Establishment of binding primaries
Student Profile: Jason Rae • Became youngest elected representative of the Democratic National Committee • His vote was sought for the Democratic National Convention
Party Conventions • Binding primaries and caucuses have transformed the process • Acceptance speech has become key • News coverage of the conventions is much less than in previous years
Pathways Profile: Bill Clinton • Keynote speaker at the Democratic National Convention in 1988 • His speech was highly anticipated but proved to be a disappointment.