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Chapter 16. Social Movements, Technology, And Social Change. Chapter Outline. How Societies Change Social Movements Technology. Social Changes in the Last Decade. The fall of the Taliban New drugs to treat AIDS Wireless computer and communication technologies

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chapter 16

Chapter 16

Social Movements, Technology, And Social Change

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • How Societies Change
  • Social Movements
  • Technology
social changes in the last decade
Social Changes in the Last Decade
  • The fall of the Taliban
  • New drugs to treat AIDS
  • Wireless computer and communication technologies
  • War and malnutrition in many developing nations
  • Destruction of the Amazon rainforest
  • An epidemic of repetitive stress disorders linked to computer use.
collective behavior and social movements
Collective Behavior and Social Movements
  • They are related in two ways:
    • Social movements need and encourage collective behavior to keep issues in the public eye.
    • Collective behavior can be part of a repeated mass response to problematic conditions and may be a force in mobilizing social movements.
theories of social movements
Theories of Social Movements
  • Relative Deprivation - reconciliation of what people have and what they expect.
  • Resource mobilization - social movements happen when groups are competing for scarce resources.
  • Political process - a social movement requires political opportunities and the belief that change is possible.
relative deprivation theory
Relative-deprivation Theory
  • Can provide an explanation for social movements occurring when objective conditions are improving or showing a major improvement over the past.
  • Because this theory relies on the disorganizing effects of social change, it is often referred to as breakdown theory.
  • Assumes that in normal circumstances society functions smoothly.
relative deprivation theory two major criticisms
Relative-deprivation theory Two major criticisms
  • Empirical evidence does not bear out the prediction that those who are most deprived will be the ones most likely to participate in social movement.
  • Fails to specify the conditions under which relative deprivation will lead to social movements.
resource mobilization theory
Resource Mobilization Theory
  • Social movements develop when organized groups compete for scarce resources.
  • The spark for turning deprivation into a movement is not anger and resentment but rather organization.
  • Similarly, the building blocks of social movements are organized groups, not alienated, discontented individuals.
political process theory
Political Process Theory
  • A social movement needs two things:
    • political opportunities
      • preexisting organizations that can provide the new movement with leaders, members, phone lines, copying machines, and other resources
    • an “insurgent consciousness.”
      • the individual sense that change is needed and possible.
frame alignment
Frame Alignment

Four mobilization strategies to attract new members:

  • Frame bridging - targets groups with similar interests.
  • Frame amplification or consciousness raising.
frame alignment1
Frame Alignment
  • Frame extension - attempts to include more issues and problems in the original frame.
  • Frame transformation - convincing people that their previous views are wrong while calling them to “salvation” through a newer and truer perspective.
outcomes of social movements
Outcomes of Social Movements

Four possibilities:

  • A full response to the movement’s goals.
  • Goals co-opted while the SMO is discounted and dismissed.
  • Goals pre-empted and adopted by those in power.
  • Total failure.
three conditions for a countermovement
Three Conditions for a Countermovement
  • The original movement should have achieved some measure of success.
  • The original movement, threatens the self-esteem, values, and interests of a significant number of people.
  • Those who feel threatened also feel they can enlist powerful allies.
social movements and the media
Social Movements and the Media

Four factors are critical for media coverage:

  • Dramatic, visible events like demonstrations may interest the media.
  • Use of authoritative sources (like government officials).
  • Timing.
  • Access to news nets.  
theories of technologically induced social change
Theories of Technologically Induced Social Change
  • Structural-functional theory sees social change as evolutionary and adaptive.
  • Conflict theory focuses on power and social change.
the sociologist s contribution
The Sociologist’s Contribution
  • Study of conflict resolution and techniques for negotiating peaceful settlements.
  • Developing social justice perspectives.
  • Modeling practical development strategies.