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Europe, Africa, and Latin America Study Guide Chapters 1 and 2 – The Fall of Rome and The Development of Feudalism 1. Name 3 factors that led to the fall of the Roman Empire. Empire was too large – its borders were opened to attacks Political instability- Economic problems- high taxes

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Europe africa and latin america study guide

  • Europe, Africa, and Latin America Study Guide

  • Chapters 1 and 2 – The Fall of Rome and The Development of Feudalism

  • 1. Name 3 factors that led to the fall of the Roman Empire.

    • Empire was too large – its borders were opened to attacks

    • Political instability-

    • Economic problems- high taxes

  • 2. Define the following:

    • Manor – a large estate owned by a noble

    • Fief – landgiven by a lord to a vassal in return for protection and loyalty

    • Vassal – a lesser noble (such as a knight) provided lord with loyalty and protection

    • Serf – poor peasants bound to the manor and worked the land

    • Chivalry – a code of conduct followed by a knight

  • 3. Complete the feudal pyramid below by ranking the following social classes:

    • Peasant king vassal noble

  • 4. Name 3 purposes of the manor.

    • Maintained social order

    • Self-sufficient (could provide the basic needs for all)

    • Provided protection and security

    • Served as a gathering place


What factor determined your social class? Birth




Europe africa and latin america study guide

  • Chapter 3 – The Church

  • 5. Who is Constantine? What did he do?

  • A Roman emperor who allowed Christians to practice their religion freelyand made it the official religion of the empire.

  • Why was Latin important in western Europe?

  • It was the common language used.

  • 7. Define the following:

    • Pilgrim – a person who goes on a religious journey to show their devotion

    • Crusades – a series of battles fought in order to get Jerusalem (the Holy Land) back from the Muslims

    • Excommunicate - to be banned from the Church

  • 8. Explain the Church’s role in education.

  • The Church would teach some and began schools.

  • Chapter 4 – Medieval Towns

  • 9. Name 3 reasons for the growth of medieval towns.

    • Growth of trade

    • Specialization of crafts

    • Surplus of crops

  • 10. What was the purpose of a guild? How did it protect its members? How did it protect customers?

  • A guild would protect its members and make sure all products were high quality. Protected their members by setting hours and prices, dealt with complaints and took care of the sick. The guilds protected the customers by having set prices and made sure the quality was good.

  • 11. How did merchants become powerful? How did they show this power?

  • Merchants were gaining wealth and power because they were involved with trade. They would often become part of the town’s council or mayor.

Europe africa and latin america study guide

  • 12. Describe the living conditions in medieval towns.

  • Medieval towns were very dirty and crowded. People would throw trash and waste into the streets and rivers. Many rats carried fleas infected with the bubonic plague. The fleas would spread the disease to people.

  • How was crime handled in medieval towns?

  • Trial by Ordeal and Trial by Combat were common ways crime was handled. People could also be hanged, burned or put into stocks.

  • Chapter 5 – Decline of Feudalism

  • 14. What were the 3 reasons for the decline of feudalism?

    • Political Events

    • Bubonic Plague

    • Hundred Years War

  • 15. Define the following:

    • Magna Carta– A legal document that limited the power of the King and gave power to the nobles. More rights were

    • Nationalism - A strong sense of loyalty to one’s own country

    • Bubonic Plague – Also known as the Black Death- killed many people in Europe

    • Hundred Years’ War - a series of battles where the French King challenged England’s claim to French land

  • 16. What was the importance of common law?

  • Written law- it replaced trial by ordeal and trial by combat. You could not just be charged with a crime. It gave commoners more rights and protection from false accusations.

  • 17. Where did the bubonic plague originate? How did it spread?

  • It came over on trade ships from Asia (The rats were infected by fleas.) The rats would die and find another host to feed them.

Europe africa and latin america study guide

  • Chapter 6 – The Byzantine Empire

  • How was the Byzantine Empire created? How long did it survive?

  • After the fall of the Roman Empire (western Europe), the Byzantine Empire continued to survived another 1,000 years.

  • Chapter 10 – The Crusades

  • Name 3 positive influences the crusades had on Christians.

    • European monarchs became more powerful

    • New knowledge in science, technology and math were acquired

    • New foods and products increase trade

  • Name 3 positive influences the crusades had on Muslims.

    • Gained exposure to some new weapons and military ideas and began to adopt standing, or permanent, armies.

    • Muslim merchants earned wealth from trade with Europe, which helped to fund new mosques and religious schools.

    • Muslims united to fight their common foe.

  • Where did the Reconquista take place? What were its results?

  • The Reconquista took place in Spain. Many Muslims were driven from Europe which opened trade routes in the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Chapter 27 and 30 – The Renaissance and Reformation

  • How did trade contribute to the growth of the Renaissance?

  • Many classical goods and ideas were brought back by from Byzantine Empire by the Crusaders and merchants

  • Define humanism

  • Thinking that tried to balance religion and faith with individual dignity and an interest in nature and society.

  • 24. What was the main cause of the Reformation?

  • Corruption of the Roman Catholic Church was one of the main factors. The selling of indulgences for the forgiveness of sins upset many people.

Europe africa and latin america study guide

  • Chapters 23, 26, and 32 – The Age of Exploration and the Americas

  • Name 3 motivating factors that led to the Age of Exploration.

    • The desire to break Mediterranean trade control by Italians and Muslims

    • The desire to acquire spices from Asia

    • The desire to spread Christianity

  • 26. Trade routes already existed across the Mediterranean Sea. Why did Portugal and Spain seek out different routes?

  • Italian and Muslim traders controlled the Mediterranean routes. Increased prices and refusal

  • to trade often resulted.

  • Italy never participated in exploration. Why not?

  • Italy already controlled the routes across the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Define mercantilism.

  • An economic policy where nations try to gather wealth by controlling trade and establishing control over other territories

  • 29. Tenochtitlan was built mainly on the lakebed of Lake Texcoco. What two engineering feats made this possible?

  • chinampas- definition: Floating bed used by the Aztecs to grow crops

  • causeways - definition: Roadways connecting Tenochtitlan with the mainland built by securing 2 lines of posts to the lakebeds and filling in the gaps with rock and soil.

  • 30. How does mercantilism apply to Spain’s interests in the New World?

  • Spain wanted to set up colonies in order to gain as many new resources as possible

Europe africa and latin america study guide

31. How Americasdid tribute contribute to the success of the Aztecs?

Define tribute: payment made to a ruler to show loyalty or submission

Connection to Aztecs: Conquered people had to make payment of crops or work to rulerin order to show their obedience to the leader.

32. What inventive achievement mastered by the Inca aided them in trade …. communication …. warfare …. control of their empire? Roads and suspension bridges

Describe in detail: The roads and suspension bridges allowed the Inca to control a large empire which was covered by mountains.

33. The mountain range where the Incan society flourished. Andes Mountains

34. A lasting legacy is something that is maintained for generations, even into modern times. What cultural institution did Spain introduce to the New World that remains evident to this day? Christianity explain Many people in the current area still practice Christianity.

35 Many new products crossed the Atlantic Ocean to and from the New World. Which three items in the word box were new to Europe during this trans-Atlantic trade?


fish salt corn pork horses potatoes gold chickens cocoa silver

Complete the following chart:

Spanish conquistador location of conquest name of empire

PizzaroAndes Mountain Region Inca

Cortes (Cortez) Mexico Aztec

Europe africa and latin america study guide

Chapter 11 – Early Societies in West Africa Americas

35. In order, what were the three early West African kingdoms?

A. Ghana

B. Mali

C. Songhai

36. What influenced the different types of products West Africans could produce and trade?

The geography of West Africa influenced the types of products produced in each area.

37. What river served as “a trading highway” in West Africa?


38. Why was the process of iron-smelting important to the growth of West African societies?

It gave the communities the ability to create iron tools. Farming became more efficient with the use of iron tools and it made it easier to grow and harvest crops. So they began to have a surplus of crops

Chapter 12 – Ghana: A West African Trading Empire

39. Which geographic feature was a major barrier to trade between West Africa and the regions of North Africa and the Middle East?


40. How did Ghana gain much of its wealth, leading to larger armies and the conquest of new lands?

Trade goods were taxed by the leaders and then the money was used to build large armies to conquer more areas.

41. How have historians learned about the kingdom of Ghana?

We have learned about Ghana through the writings of Arab scholars.

42. Who ruled Ghana’s empire in the 1100’s?

Ghana’s kings were wealthy and powerful because they controlled the gold and trade.

43. Which domesticated animal did Trans-Saharan trade largely depend upon?


Chapter 13 – The Influence of Islam on West Africa

44. Which religious practices were found in West Africa before Islamic influence reached the region?

A. The use of charms

B. Prayer to ancestors

C. Use of traditional languages

Europe africa and latin america study guide

  • 45. How did courts change under Islamic law? Americas

  • A. Judges listen to the cases

  • B. Evidence was presented during the case

  • C. Laws were written (called Shari’ ah)

  • 46. Why did Muslims copy books by hand?

  • They did not have printing press technology.

  • 47. Educationally, what was the city of Timbuktu known for?

  • It was the center for education. Many scholars went there to learn and to teach at the universities that were in Timbuktu.