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Inflorescences. Spring 2014. What is an inflorescence?. Simpson = An aggregate of one or more flowers, the boundaries of which generally occur with the presence of vegetative leaves below

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inflorescences

Inflorescences

Spring 2014

what is an inflorescence
What is an inflorescence?
  • Simpson = An aggregate of one or more flowers, the boundaries of which generally occur with the presence of vegetative leaves below
  • Judd et al. 2008 = The shoot system which serves for the formation of flowers and which is modified accordingly
slide3
Look for the flowering zone!

(from Judd et al. 2008)

slide4
Inflorescence development

Determinate: the apical meristem of the primary

inflorescence axis terminates in a flower, which

usually matures first with overall maturation from

the apex to the base

Indeterminate: the apical meristem of the primary

inflorescence axis does not terminate in a flower

but rather retains its meristematic potential,

with maturation going from the base to the apex

slide7
scorpioid cyme

cyme

terminal &

solitary

head

helicoid cyme

slide9
raceme

spike

spadix

head

panicle

slide10
Determinate or indeterminate types

Also heads can be either

determinate or indeterminate.

Fig. 9.37

fruits

Fruits

Spring 2014

maturation
Maturation
  • An inflorescence matures into an infructescence.
  • An ovary (simple or compound) matures into the fruit (but may include additional structures (e.g., hypanthium or perianth parts).
  • A fertilized ovule matures into a seed.
ovary wall becomes the pericarp
Ovary wall becomes the pericarp:
  • ENDOCARP – innermost layer
  • MESOCARP - middle layer
  • EXOCARP - outermost layer

Each can be modified independently of the others (e.g., the endocarp can be stony, the mesocarp fleshy, and the exocarp leathery) or the pericarp can be of uniform color or texture.

pericarp

slide16
exocarp

mesocarp

endocarp

seed

Avocado

(Persea, Lauraceae)

three main fruit groups
Three main fruit groups
  • Simple fruit = a fruit that develops from a single flower with a single simple or compound pistil
  • Aggregate fruit = develops from multiple separate carpels (pistils) of a single flower; unit fruit is what develops from one carpel
  • Multiple fruit = a fruit derived from the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers; unit fruit comes from one flower
simple fruits
Simple fruits
  • Simple fruits = fruits developing from the gynoecium of a single flower (i.e., a single carpel or a compound ovary of 2 or more carpels); can be dry or fleshy
dry simple fruits
Dry Simple Fruits
  • Dry at maturity
  • Does fruit open (dehisce) or not?

(Dehiscent versus indehiscent)

  • Number of carpels? Number of seeds?
  • Are any wings or other appendages present?
slide22
Utricle – a bladdery or inflated achene

with the pericarp larger than the seed

caryopsis grains singled seeded seed coat fused to pericarp unique to grasses
Caryopsis: “Grains”; singled-seeded, seed coat fused to pericarp; unique to grasses

Wheat

(Triticumaestivum)

Maize (Zea mays)

dry indehiscent fruits nuts
Dry Indehiscent Fruits: Nuts

hard-shelled,

one-seeded

follicle one suture opens
Follicle: one suture opens

Asclepias (Milkweed, Apocynaceae)

slide28
Follicles in the

Ranunculaceae

(buttercup family)

http://tezalizard.blogspot.com

legume opens along 2 sutures
Legume: opens along 2 sutures

Bean Family

Fabaceae

(Leguminosae)

slide30
Capsule: a dry fruit formed from 2 or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds
loculicidal capsule
Loculicidal Capsule

Each carpel splits along the middle,

opening directly into the locule

septicidal capsule
Septicidal Capsule

The carpels

separate

along their

side walls,

or septa.

poricidal capsule
Poricidal Capsule

Papaver (Poppy, Papaveraceae)

capsule modifications
Capsule modifications

In some plant families, capsules are

modified in special, characteristic ways.

Fruit and seed dispersal are still the

guiding needs.

cruciferous dry fruits
Cruciferous Dry Fruits

Silique

Silicle

Mustard Family (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae)

2-carpellate, outer rim (replum), persistent partition (false septum)

slide36
Schizocarp of mericarps

Dill (Apiaceae)

samaroid mericarps

Acer (Sapindaceae)

fleshy simple fruits
Fleshy Simple Fruits

One or more layers of the pericarp

become fleshy—which one(s)?

Number of carpels? Number of seeds?

From a superior or inferior ovary?

fleshy simple fruits1
Fleshy Simple Fruits
  • Berry – Entire pericarp fleshy or exocarp may be leathery; one to many seeds
  • Drupe - Mesocarp fleshy, endocarp hard, exocarp variable; usually one seeded but can have multiple seeds
  • Pome – Fleshy mesocarp (mainly hypanthium tissue) and leathery or papery endocarp; derived from an inferior ovary (Rosaceae)
berry
Berry

Capsicum (Solanaceae)

berry other examples
Berry—other examples

blueberries

tomatoes

tomato

relatives

bananas

eggplants

berry pepo
Berry (Pepo)

Found in the

Cucumber Family

(Cucurbitaceae):

parietal placentation,

leathery exocarp

berry hesperidium
Berry(hesperidium)

Found in the citrus family (Rutaceae):

Leathery exocarp, fleshy modified trichomes (juice sacs)

drupe coconut
Drupe - Coconut

Cocosnucifera

(Arecaceae)

slide45
Pome

Rose family (Rosaceae): inferior ovary, cartilaginous

endocarp, fleshy hypanthial tissue

three main fruit groups1
Three main fruit groups
  • Simple fruit = a fruit that develops from a single flower
  • Aggregate fruit = develops from multiple separate carpels of a single flower; unit fruit is what develops from one carpel
  • Multiple fruit = a fruit derived from the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers; unit fruit comes from one flower
aggregate fruit
Aggregate Fruit

Rubus

(Rosaceae)

three main fruit types
Three main fruit types
  • Simple fruit = a fruit that develops from a single flower
  • Aggregate fruit = develops from multiple separate carpels of a single flower; unit fruit is what develops from one carpel
  • Multiple fruit = a fruit derived from the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers; unit fruit comes from one flower
slide51
Multiple fruit of achenes

Platanus (sycamore)

A. Laurent

multiple fruit pineapple
Multiple Fruit - Pineapple

Ananas (Bromeliaceae)