Learning Targets Ch. 4 Sect. 1 7.2.4 Discuss how Muslim rule spread as a result of war and treaties. Focus on the spread of Islam and the Arabic language, and how the Muslim culture mixed with other cultures. 7.2.5 Describe the growth of trade between Asia , Africa, and Europe and the role of merchants in Arab society. Describe how trade led to the growth of cities and the spread of products, ideas, and inventions.
Early Expansion 7.2.4 7.2.5 The Big Idea Conquest and trade led to the spread of Islam, the blending of cultures, and the growth of cities. 4 Main Ideas
Main Idea 1: Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread. After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr became the first caliph, the title that Muslims use for the highest leader of Islam. Caliphs were not religious leaders, but political and military leaders. Abu Bakr directed a series of battles against Arab tribes who did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.
Growth of the Empire Muslim armies battled tribes that did not follow Muhammad’s teachings. The Muslim armies united Arabia, then defeated the Persian and Byzantine empires. After years of fighting Muslim armies, many Berbers, a native people of North Africa, converted to Islam and joined forces with the Arabs. A combined Berber and Arab army invaded Spain and conquered it in AD 711. (Cordoba)
Main Idea 2:Trade helped Islam spread into new areas. Along with their trade goods, Arab merchants took Islamic beliefs to new lands. Islam spread to India, Africa, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Trade also brought new products to Muslim lands and made many people rich. Travelers learned how to make paper from the Chinese. Merchants brought crops of cotton, rice, and oranges from India, China, and Southeast Asia. Muslim merchants set up trade businesses in Africa.
Main Idea 3: A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread. As Islam spread through trade, warfare, and treaties, Arabs came into contact with people who had different beliefs and lifestyles. Language and religion helped unify many groups that became part of the Islamic world. Muslims generally practiced tolerance, or acceptance, with regard to these people. Jews and Christians in particular could keep their beliefs.
Main Idea 4: Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities. Baghdad (know on the map) Capital of Islamic Empire Located near land and water trade routes Walled city Built hospitals, observatories, and a library that was used as a university Cordoba (know on the map) Capital of what is now Spain Strong economy based on agriculture and trade By the AD 900s, was the largest and most advanced city in Europe Great center of learning Also a center of Jewish culture
Learning Target Ch. 4 Sect. 2 7.2.4 Discuss how Muslim rule spread as a result of war and treaties. Focus on the spread of Islam and the Arabic language and how Muslim culture mixed with other cultures.
Muslim Empires 7.2.4 The Big Idea After the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires formed—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal. 3Main Ideas
Main Idea 1:Muslims ruled the Ottoman Empire, which was a political and cultural force. The Ottomans were aided by slave soldiers called Janissaries. They had new gunpowder weapons, such as the cannon. Mehmed II and Suleyman I led conquests that turned the Ottomans into a world power. During Suleyman’s rule, the Ottoman Empire reached its cultural peak. Poets wrote beautiful works. Architects turned Istanbul into a Muslim city. Women had limited freedom.
Ottoman Government and Society The sultan, or Ottoman ruler, issued laws and made all major decisions in the empire. Ottoman society was divided into two classes. Judges and people who advised the sultan were part of the ruling class. Those who didn’t fit into the ruling class made up the other class. Many of these were Christians or Jews from lands the Ottomans had conquered.
Main Idea 2: The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam. A conflict arose over who should be caliph. Islam split into two groups. The Shia thought that only members of Muhammad’s family could become caliphs. The Sunni thought it did not matter as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders.
The Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire began when the Safavid leader Esma’il conquered Persia and made himself shah, or king. In 1501. He made Shiism the official religion of the empire. The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim traditions. The manufacturing of traditional products, such as handwoven carpets, silk, and velvet, was encouraged.
SA tb 93 1-2 1.a. Janissaries were Christian boys the Ottomans captured, converted to Islam, and used as slave troops. 1b. Ottoman society was tolerant because it allowed Christians and Jews to live there, but it was intolerant because it limited women’s freedom and forced the early Janissaries to convert to Islam. 2a. The Safavid Empire began when the Safavid leader Esma’il conquered Persia and made himself shah, or king. In 1501. 2b. Safavid culture was part of the empires economy because the manufacturing of traditional products, such as handwoven carpets, silk, and velvet, was encouraged.
Main Idea 3:The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage. Babur established the Mughal Empire, but it grew mostly under an emperor named Akbar. Akbar’s tolerant religious policies helped unify the empire. Leaders after him weren’t tolerant of other religions besides Islam and it made people revolt. This is what weakened the empire and eventually ended it. A conflict of cultures and religion led to the end of this empire, but resulted in a culture unique to the Mughal Empire. Cultures that blended in the empire included Muslims Hindus Persians Indians
Learning Target Ch. 4 Sect. 3 7.2.6 Understand how Muslim scholars from different areas worked together and made contributions in the areas of math, science, philosophy, art, and literature.
Cultural Achievements 7.2.6 The Big Idea Muslim scholars and artists made contributions to science, art, and literature. 2 Main Ideas
Main Idea 1: Muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy. Muslim scholars made advances in astronomy, geography, math, and science. Many ancient writings were translated into Arabic. This helped preserve the ancient knowledge for learning.
Cultural Achievements Geography Geographers made more accurate maps than before, mostly due to the contributions of al-Idrisi. Ibn Battutah traveled to Africa, India, China and Spain and made many contributions to geography. Math The Muslim mathematician al-Khwarizmi laid the foundations for modern algebra. Astronomy They made improvements to the astrolabe, which the Greeks had invented to chart the positions of the stars.
More Scholarly Advances Medicine The Muslims’ greatest scientific achievements may have come in medicine. A doctor named Ar-Razi discovered how to diagnose and treat the deadly disease smallpox. Philosophy The Muslim philosophy focused on spiritual issues, which led to a movement called Sufism. Sufism teaches that people can find God’s love by having a personal relationship with God.
Main Idea 2:Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts. Literature Two forms of literature were popular in the Muslim world—poetry and short stories. Architecture The greatest architectural achievements were mosques. They often had a dome and minarets—narrow towers from which Muslims are called to prayer. Patrons, or sponsors, used their wealth to pay for elaborately decorated mosques.
More Islamic Influences Art Because they could not represent people or animals in paintings due to their religion, Muslim artists turned calligraphy, or decorative writing, into an art form. They used this technique to decorate buildings and mosques.