A socio-cultural approach to participation. . An overview of basic concepts and methods Hanna Laitinen 2.3.2011. QUESTION 1: ORIENTATION. What is it that makes us feel eager to participate in something and be active ? Think about your answer individually (2 min)
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A socio-culturalapproach to participation . An overview of basicconcepts and methods Hanna Laitinen 2.3.2011
QUESTION 1: ORIENTATION What is itthatmakes us feeleager to participate in something and beactive? • Thinkaboutyouranswerindividually (2 min) • Makegroups of fourwith the peoplesittingnext to you. • Shareyouranswers in the group (4 min)
Socioculturalanimation – fundamentalconcepts • Participation • Peopleparticipatefrom the beginning and throughout. In fact, the ’targetgroup’ is the realowner of the process. • Sensitisation • There is a need to comeaware of whatneeds to change and why • Dialogue • Active and equallistening and sharing of thoughts and understanding • Creativity • Let the ideasflow! • Commitment • Allstakeholdersarecommitted to the process and to the people
Hot and coldworlds J-C Gillet COLD: Technocraticplanning and implementation, input-outputoriented, economicallyjustified HOT: Feeling of LIFE, reaction to repression and byrocracy, social movement
QUESTION 2: Howwouldyouchange the situation?
EFFECTIVENESS AND IMPACT • Impact: Outcomes that last long, even when the project inputs are no longer there • Effectiveness: Activities carried out with little money • Participation can help to invent and select local solutions that fit the local conditions and that are more likely to be sustainable
COMMITMENT To give time and effort to contribute to the common goal. Beneficiary commitment often crucial for the success of the project (min. a commitment to use the new service provided). Is connected to the feeling of belonging and ownership According to participation theory, commitment is increased when • the planned activity responds to the real priority problems of the people • people have the feeling that they can influence the process so that it is relevant at all times
LEARNING • Learning is one of the most secure outcomes of development projects – all have the right to benefit from it • People learn (explain their world) all the time – what do they learn from development efforts – the risk is that they learn a wrong message if we are not aware of the situation • Learning is supported by taking time to reflect and assess; what works and what does not work?
EMPOWERMENT • A development project is more a MEANS for the community to learn than and end in itself. • Sociocultural animation (e.g. Paulo Freire): people are encouraged to analyse their situation, ask the question ‘why’ and take action a process of sensitisation, making questions, looking for answers and learning, taking action, assessing etc.
PARTICIPATION AS A HUMAN RIGHT • People have the right for development and to define their development themselves • Right to participate, right to be the SUBJECT of their own development • Connected to the objective to strengthen civil society and democracy Support people to become active citizens in their community and society as a whole
METHODS / TOOLS CAN BE USED • To help organise / focus the group • To encourage participation / creativity etc. • To make participation easier by giving visual aids / different ways to participate (without reading or writing) etc. • To help break established roles • To find out and understand more about the circumstances where people live
METHODS / TOOLS • For the different phases of project planning • To make most out of group work • To encourage creativity • For collaborative learning • For experimental learning • To start + encourage discussion • For icebreaking
A GOOD FACILITATOR • Best possible qualities and skills depend on the situation and objectives; different facilitator roles include e.g. • ANIMATOR (motivator) • FACILITATOR IN PLANNING (projects) • MEDIATOR (shows new possiblities) • TRAINER • CHAIRPERSON OR OTHER ELECTED LEADER
A GOOD FACILITATOR • Listens to the participants, gives space • Does his/her best to meet the real needs and to find answers to the real problems of the community • Remembers always that s/he is there to strenghten the community and acts accordingly never humiliates the participants • Shares his/her knowledge, does not have hidden agendas.
A GOOD FACILITATOR (2) • Tries to find ways in which it is easy for the participants to be involved, give their opinions and share their understanding of the situation • Uses participatory methods with a purpose and in a flexible way • Remembers that there is no one way to use participatory methods or to be a participatory facilitator be creative and develop your own personal way!