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The Role of University in Enhancing Agricultural Sector. Catherine Chan-Halbrendt Ph.D. Jean Fantle-Lepczyk B.A. Ana Mane Ph.D. Outline. Role of Public Agricultural Universities Role of Agricultural Economics Research US Land Grant Model and Funding

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the role of university in enhancing agricultural sector

The Role of University in Enhancing Agricultural Sector

Catherine Chan-Halbrendt Ph.D.

Jean Fantle-Lepczyk B.A.

Ana Mane Ph.D.

outline
Outline
  • Role of Public Agricultural Universities
  • Role of Agricultural Economics Research
  • US Land Grant Model and Funding
  • Role of Education, Research and Extension
  • Albanian Universities, Research Institutes and Funding
  • Albanian Agricultural Sector
  • Challenges to Ag Trade in Albania
  • EU Integration Standards and Albanian Agriculture
  • AHEED Project’s Role and Impacts
  • Looking Forward
  • Acknowledgements
role of public agricultural universities
Role of Public Agricultural Universities
  • Improvement of societal welfare through agricultural activities
    • Traditionally, teaching
    • Evolved to include research and extension
    • The ultimate goal: seamless integration of research, teaching and extension
role of agricultural economics research
Role of Agricultural Economics Research

Goal for the Ag Sector:

    • Competitive in the Ag Sector
    • Provide Health and Well-being of citizens
    • Sustainability of the Natural Resources

How to get there using Ag Economics Research:

  • Human capacity building using economic principles and tools to conduct research
  • Disseminating research and policy publications
u s land grant public university model
U.S. Land Grant (Public) University Model
  • Fundamental principles:
  • Accessibility of higher education
  • Practical, relevant and useful education
  • Research for the public interest
  • Connectedness to ALL the people
functional spirit of public universities remarks by w j kerr president of oregon state university
Functional spirit of public universities**remarks by W.J. Kerr, president of Oregon State University

1. The spirit of initiative—Pioneering;

2. The spirit of growth—Progress;

3. The spirit of equal opportunity for all— Democracy; and

4. The spirit of helpfulness—Service

slide7

Instructor-trained skills

Extension where the rubber meets

the road

Research axis of excellence/technology

land grant funding model
Land Grant Funding Model
  • Private
    • Tuition, competitive grants, trade associations, business, foundation
  • Federal (US $32 Billion)
    • Formula and competitive funds for relevant basic and applied research and outreach activities
  • State and local governments
albanian universities
Albanian Universities
  • Traditionally, teaching
  • Struggle to evolve to include research and extension activities
  • Challenges:
    • No similar US funding model for research and extension
    • No reward guidelines and policies for excellence in research, teaching and extension
    • Expectations low
    • Low pay
    • Collaboration based on friendships rather than complementarities of skills and needs
agricultural research institutes in albania streamlined
Agricultural Research Institutes in Albania (Streamlined)
  • In the early 1990’s, Albania had 18 agricultural research institutes.
      • 4650 staff members
      • 342 researchers
  • By mid-2006 this number has reduced by 50% to 9 agricultural research institutes
    • 700 employees
  • After reorganization in 2006, the existing agricultural research institutes were restructured into
    • 5 Agriculture Technology Transfer Centers
    • 1 Institute (Food Safety and Veterinary Institute)
research funding in albania
Research Funding in Albania

Generally, Albanian agricultural research is funded by:

  • Albanian government, via the Ministry of Agriculture
  • Foreign agenciesand assistance projects
  • In some cases, the faculty and students fund themselves especially for graduate studies.
importance of agricultural sector in albania
Importance of Agricultural Sector in Albania
  • 58% of total labor and 19 % of GDP comes from the agricultural sector
    • One of the most important sectors of the Albanian economy
  • About 56 % of the population live in rural areas, where agriculture is the main activity
  • Productivity and value are low
agricultural products competitive
Agricultural products, competitive?
  • Recent trends indicate Albania’s potential for a modern and competitive agricultural sector (increase self-sufficiency in vegetables, eggs, milk and fruits)
    • If the right policy environment engenders sufficient private investment e.g. credit access a problem- 1% given to agriculture
  • Albania’s competitive advantage derives from three fundamental factors:
    • Climate
    • Highly skilled labor force
    • Proximity to markets
challenges to the agriculture in albania
Challenges to the Agriculture in Albania
  • Funding for R4D is less than 1%
  • Human capacity building slow in responding to changing environment
  • Product quality and food safety (wine preferred Italian vs. domestic)
  • Students are theoretically and not practically trained and trained students do not stay in agriculture
    • Lack of connection between research and extensionand farmer
    • Production and marketing Issues (lack of market points in northern and eastern areas and post-harvest facilities)
    • Finance and credit (1% goes to agriculture)
  • Import/Export - Perception of local products vs. imports
import export a particular challenge for albanian agriculture
Import/Export, a Particular Challenge for Albanian Agriculture
  • Huge deficit in agricultural trade.
    • In 2007, $80 million in exports and $700 million in imports creating a skewed export to import ratio of 1:9
    • Still a net importer of agricultural and food products
  • In 2009 largest value share of agricultural and food imports:
  • live animals
  • fruits and nuts
  • fats and oils
  • In 2009 largest value share of agricultural and food exports:
  • Rawhides, skins, and other animal products
  • Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits
eu integration standards important to the ag trade
EU Integration Standards Important to the Ag Trade
  • Albania hopes to become an member of the European Union (EU) inthe next decade
  • EU integration creates opportunities
    • Subsidies for rural and agriculture development
    • Potential export opportunities to EU and international food markets
  • EU integration imposes standards
    • Product quality and safety
    • Enhancement of efficiency
  • If a strategic vision and planning is employed and implemented, Albania can ease the transition process for its agricultural sector
how the aheed project can help
How the AHEED Project Can Help
  • Ani, this slide still needs work
  • Per Cathy we need to add: Now that the capacity building is on its way, it is up to the stakeholders to participate and capitalized the built capacity through collaboratively funding and prioritizing the research agenda. Maybe this can be worked in here???
  • What is the mission of AHEED to assist in the research – relevant research with extension, build faculty research capacity thus student’s capacity
  • Research Capacity for Policy. Stronger stress should be given to the research and its conclusions regarding agricultural issues.
examples of recent aut research funded by the aheed project
Examples of Recent AUT Research Funded by the AHEED Project
  • Consumer preferences for table olives, wine, olive oil, lamb meat, apples
  • Value chain analysis of fruits and vegetables sub sector
  • Evaluation of factors that influence implementation of QMS in the meat processing industry in Albania
  • Alternatives of improving management of value chain for the greenhouse tomatoes production
  • Alternative solutions for efficient use of refused land in Shëngjergj Commune in Albania
policy implications
Policy Implications
  • Specific market commodity attributes to target
  • Domestic product in demand - need to create more quality standards and supply at competitive prices (through new technology)
the aheed project s impact on albanian agriculture
The AHEED Project’s Impact on Albanian Agriculture
  • Creating linkages between university, extension services, farmers and policy makers
  • Hosting workshops for faculty staff, extension and students
  • Enabling research through scientific and financial assistance
    • Especially, relevant Albanian agricultural crops: olive oil, table olives, apples, greenhouse vegetables
  • Promoting AUT research at national/international conferences
    • This conference originated via the AHEED project and has expanded in its 3rd year
  • Enhancing the graduate student experience via improved classes and research experience
extent of impacts will depend on us

Excellent Coordination

Extent of IMPACTS will depend on US.
  • Setting S.M.A.R.T. Goals
  • Effective communication before and after.
  • Balance needs.
  • Reward teams and performers.

Well-oiled Machine

Excellent Equipment

looking forward
Looking Forward
  • Strong potential role for land grant type public institutions
    • Provide technology and education program and socioeconomic information
    • Provide outreach to industry in coordination with extension
    • Provide infrastructure for reward for excellence in research
  • Also a role for the government
    • Stimulate, assist, and coordinate a nationwide network of regional, state, and local programs for technology development and industrial extension
    • Provide funding for training, research and policy implementation
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • USAID (JorgjiKristaq)
  • HED
  • AUT (Rector, Dean, Faculty, Students)
  • Dr. EngjellSkreli
  • Project Coordinator Dr. Ana Mane Kapaj
  • Project Assistant Jean FantleLepczyk
  • Ministry of Agriculture: Extension- Dr. TatjanaDishnica
  • Other Drs. EdvinZhllima and DriniImami
falemenderit

Falemenderit

Catherine Chan-Halbrendt

Jean Fantle-Lepczyk

Ana Mane