General studies about tumors. Morphological properties of mesenchimal tissue tumors. Nomenclature and morphological features of the nervous system tumors. As.-prof. V.Voloshyn In Accordance with prof. Ya.Ya. Bodnar
Tumours • A tumour is a typical pathological process. It is characterized by potential boundlessness of uncontrolled growth, and also atypical cells and tissues and ability to pass these properties to future generations of cells on heredity.
Properties of tumours • unlimitedness of growth; • boundlessness of growth; • uncontrolled of growth; • cells anaplasia.
Anaplasia • Anaplasia is the proof loss capacity of cells to differentiation, to form specific tissues structures or product the specific matters
Types of anaplasia (kataplasia) • morphological; • biochemical; • physical and chemical; • immunological.
Etiology of tumours • It is set, the tumours can be caused by physical, chemical and biological agents, which are named carcinogens. • Over 75% cancers diseases at people are caused by the factors of external environment and in the first order – by chemical compounds.
Chemical theory According to a chemical structure chemical carcinogens divide into a few groups: a) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; b) arylamines (aromatic amines) and amides; c) nitrosamines and nitrosamides. Over 200 matters with three and more benzol rings belong to the first group. Only one of them, namely – 3,4-benzpiren is included in such which are able to cause a cancer at people. Other cause tumours only at experimental animals. Second group of carcinogens is mainly nitrocolorings. The nitro-compounds (nitrosamines and nitrosamides) are characterized by alkyl radical which have. They are used as antioxidants, pesticides, solvents of paints, semi-products at the synthesis of dyes, medications and polymers.
Radiation cancerogenesis • Ionizing rays and in less degree are ultraviolet rays belong to the physical carcinogens. Ionizing rays operate not straight, but through synthesized high-activity free radicals, which violate the structure of DNA. Ultraviolet rays hinder to its reparation.
Viral cancerogenesis • There are irrefutable proofs of viral origin of many tumours at animals – Raus's sarcoma at chickens, fibroma and Shopa's papilloma at rabbit, cancer of mammary gland at mouse (a virus is passed through milk). There are a little amount of the tumours at people which caused by viruses (which we known doubtless (безсумнівно) today): Berkit's lymphadenoma, nasopharingeal cancer, cancer of uterus neck.
Viral cancerogenesis • Essence of viral induction cancerogenesis is such: cancerogenic viruses bring in the infected cell the genome in the complement of which transforming gene enters - viral oncogene. The product of his activity (oncoprotein) begins transformation of cell and supports it in the transformed kind.
expansive appositional infiltrative Forms of tumours growth FORMS OF TUMOURS GROWTH endofits exofitus
Ways of the tumours metastases Ways of the tumours metastases MIXT Haematogenic Perineural Lymphogenic Implantogenic
Mesenkhimal tumours • – are tumours, which grow from derivates of mesenchyma tissues: connecting, fat, muscular, vascular, bone, cartilaginous tissues, synovial and serosal membranes. These tumours do not have organ specificity, meet rarer than epithelial tumours.
Benign tumours from connecting tissue: • fibroma (hard, soft) - meet in a skin, ovaries, extremities, grow slowly, expansively; Fibrotic hystiocytomas or dermatofibroma
Benign tumours from fat tissue: • lipoma (fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, myelolipoma), hybernoma- tumour from brown fat.
Benign tumours from muscles: • a leiomyoma is a tumour from smooth muscles, more frequent meets in an uterus; rabdomyoma is tumour from skeleton (transversal-striped) muscles, meets mainly at children; a grainy-cellular tumour or Abrikosov's tumour is localized in a tongue, skin, gullet.
Malignant tumours of mesenkhimal origin • are named sarcomas from the Greek word of sarcos - meat, meet rarely. On a cut tumours have a white-grey color, like fish-meat. Such tumours metastasize by haematogenic way mainly.
Benign tumours from vessels • haemangioma, to which take a capillary angioneoplasm, cave angioneoplasm, gloms angioneoplasm (Barre-Massone tumour) (meets on the fingers of foot or manus), benignhaemangioperocytomas; lymphangiomas.
Benign tumours of mesenchimal origin • The tumours of synovial membrane are presented by synoviomas • Among the tumours of mesothelial tissue more frequent there is a fibrotic mesothelioma. • The tumours of bones includes spongy and compact osteomas, benign osteoblastomas, osteoid-osteomas • There are two variant of cartilaginous tissue tumours ekchondromas and enchondromas, and also benign chondroblastomas.
Malignant tumours of mesenchimal origin • The malignant tumour of connecting tissue is fibrosarcoma which depending on the kataplasia degree can be differentiated and lowdifferentiated, and also malignant hystiocytoma. • From fat tissue – liposarcomas and malignant hybernomas • There are a malignant leiomyoma, malignant grainy-cellular tumour and rabdosarcomas formed from muscles • Malignant tumours from vessels are angiosarcomas develop from an endothelia and pericytes – malignant haemangioendotelioma, haemangiopericytoma, lymphangioendotelioma, Kaposhy's sarcoma. • There are malignant synoviomasin joints . • In a peritoneum, pleura, pericardium are malignant mesotheliomas. • Osteoblastic and osteolytic osteosarcomas, Yuing's sarcoma develop in the bones. • In cartilaginous tissueare chondrosarcomas.
Tumours of nervous tissue. • The tumours of nervous tissue have the same clinical features: according the motion they are almost all malignant regardless of their morphological description, because press on the neighbouring areas of cerebrum, distribution passes within the limits of nervous tissue without remote haematogenic metastases. The tumours of nervous tissue divide on neuroektodermal and meningovessels.
Neuroektodermal tumours • sit are divided on astrocells, oligodendroglial, ependimal and tumours of chorionic epithelium, neuronal, lowdifferentiated and embryonic.
Meningovessels tumours • develop from brain meninges and presented by meningeomas and durosarcomas.
Tumours of melaninproducing tissue • develop from the cells of neuroektodermal origin – melanocytes, which are in the basal layer of epidermis, hair follicles, leptomeninges and retina. Melanocytes can be the source of tumular formations – nevus and malignant tumours – melanomas.