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What are sex and gender?. Biological: sex. FEMALE  MALE Determined at birth Reproductive organs Body type, hormones, etc. Binary by social definition About 2% “deviation from the ideal male or female” .1%-.2% have surgery. Population sex distribution. Male. Female. Intersex.

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biological sex
Biological: sex

FEMALE  MALE

  • Determined at birth
    • Reproductive organs
    • Body type, hormones, etc.
  • Binary by social definition
    • About 2% “deviation from the ideal male or female”
    • .1%-.2% have surgery
population sex distribution
Population sex distribution

Male

Female

Intersex

social gender
Social: gender

WOMAN  MAN

  • Determined by socialization
  • Variable across time/place
    • Division of labor
    • Family / reproduction
    • Exceptions makes the rules
  • Men (almost) always dominate
gender attitudes
Gender attitudes
  • Sexism: seeing women as inferior, e.g.,

WOMEN MEN

sensitive tough

dependent independent

weak strong

emotional logical

gender and health
Gender and health
  • Rich countries: Women live longer
    • Men die more from behaviors and work

Deaths per 100,000 (USA, 2000)

Source: NCHS, Health United States, 2002

gender and health9
Gender and health
  • Rich countries: Women live longer
    • Access to reproductive health

Maternal mortality per 100,000 live births (USA, 2000)

Source: NCHS, Health United States, 2002

women in the labor force
Women in the labor force

Source: Marger (1999), p. 309.

why more employed women
Why more employed women?
  • Push out from the family
    • Increased need to work for pay
    • Men’s lower wages and employment
      • But before 1970s, women’s employment rose even though men’s wages were going up
    • Later marriage, more single motherhood, more divorce
  • But employment rates rose more for women with less need (higher education)
why more employed women15
Why more employed women?
  • Pull into the labor market
  • Increased labor market opportunity
    • Increased access to higher education
    • Jobs in the new service economy
    • Less discrimination
women s educational advance
Women’s educational advance

Source: Marger (1999), p. 321.

women s labor force participation
Women’s labor force participation

Source: Cohen's calculations from IPUMS.

women s earnings are growing faster
Women’s earnings are growing faster

Source: Cohen's calculation from Current Population Surveys.

but the gender gap remains high
But the gender gap remains high

Source: Cohen's calculation from Current Population Surveys.

partly because of gender segregation
Partly because of gender segregation

Source: Cohen’s calculations from Current Population Survey

slide21

Most female-dominated occupations

Earnings % Female

Secretaries & administrative assistants 26,856 97

Receptionists & information clerks 21,429 94

Child care workers 13,891 94

Bookkeeping account & audit clerks 24,447 92

Registered nurses 45,272 90

Nurses & home health aides 18,833 89

Maids & housekeepers/cleaners 13,891 86

Elementary & middle school teachers 36,217 79

Cashiers 15,392 75

Customer svc representatives 25,930 70

Average earnings24,216

2003-4 Current Population Survey, Cohen calculations ($1999, ftfy workers)

slide22

Most male-dominated occupations

Earnings % Female

Carpenters 25,352 1

Automotive svc techs & mechanics 27,163 1

Sups/mgrs, construction/extraction 40,745 2

Construction laborers 21,730 2

Driver/sales wks & truck drivers 31,486 3

Laborers & material movers 22,636 15

Sups/mgrs, production & operation 36,217 21

Chief executives 86,922 21

Sales representatives, services 45,272 23

Sups/mgrs, non-retail sales 42,555 24

Average earnings38,008

2003-4 Current Population Survey, Cohen calculations ($1999, ftfy workers)

segregation by race ethnicity and gender
Segregation by race/ethnicity and gender

Most common occupations

MEN WOMEN

White Manager Secretary

Black Truck driver Nursing aid

Latino Truck driver Maids/cleaners

Asian Software eng. RNs

Cohen Calculations, 2003-4 March CPS.

gender gaps by race ethnicity
Gender gaps by race/ethnicity

66% of men

82% of men

79% of men

Source: March Current Population Survey (1999).

gender inequality at home
Gender inequality at home

Percentage of married women earning

more than their husbands

Source: March Current Population Survey.

housework hours in married couples
Housework hours in married couples

Source: Bianchi et al 2000, p. 209.

wife husband ratio of weekly hours
Wife / husband ratio of weekly hours

Source: Bianchi et al 2000, p. 209.