Learning Styles &Multiple Intelligences (just some approaches!) Lead Lecture Y1 Approaches to Learning Semester 2 Week 3 Emma Morley
The Broad Landscape Un-assessed Group Poster PresentationWeek 5 • This will be based around your poster – no PowerPoint • You will present the information as outlined for the poster i.e. • Brief biography, with significant highlights • Outline of key theories / ideas • Impact on thinking in education • Impact on current practice with practical examples • Strengths / limitations
Social Relationships Family & Community Intelligence West-Burnham & Coates (2005) Effective Learning Health & Well-being The Learning Culture The Individual as a Learner Neurological Factors Some approaches to learning……
Thinking Skills Thinking Styles Learning Styles Constructivism Multiple Intelligences VAK Visual Task Boards WALT WILF Brain-based Learning Learning about Learning Creativity Learning Intentions Success Criteria KWL Boards Metacognition Emotional Literacy ‘Look, Pair, Share’ Feedback Peer and self assessment ‘Two Stars & a Wish’ ‘Traffic Lights’/ ‘Thumbs Up’ Assessment OF Learning Assessment AS Learning Assessment FOR Learning
A tool kit……. • VAK • Multiple Intelligences • Brain based Learning • TASC • Thinking Hats • P4C • High Scope
Some tools are better than others….. • It will depend on what it is you are trying to achieve • Where it is you are starting from • Individual jobs may require different tools (one size does not necessarily fit all!) • Some jobs require more than one tool • Some people disagree with the choice of certain tools • Sometimes you have to try more than one tool • There are no guarantees that what you do will work !
Learning styles – the great debate! There is agreement that: • People learn in different ways. • People have preferred approaches to learning known as learning styles. • It is helpful to a learner to be aware of his / her preferred learning style.
On average, we remember ….. 20% of what we READ 30% of what we HEAR 40% of what we SEE 50% of what we SAY 60% of what we DO 90% of what we SEE, HEAR, SAY and DO
There is a range of current approaches to the issue of learning styles, based on different standpoints re learning. One popular approach ….
PERCEPTUAL MODALITY This refers to the ways our bodies take in information using the senses i.e. biologically based reactions. • VISUAL • AUDITORY • KINAESTHETIC = VAK
See the colours and patterns of the fireworks? Hear the loud noise? Smell the gunpowder and feel the excitement / fear? Do you mainly…
Visual Learners …… • Learn by seeing • Have good visual recall • Prefer information presented visually, e.g. maps, diagrams, graphs, posters, displays • Often use hand movements when describing or recalling events & objects • Tend to look up when thinking or recalling information
Auditory Learners …… • Prefer to learn by listening • Have good auditory memory • Benefit from discussion, lectures, interviewing, hearing stories & audio tapes • Like sequence, repetition, and summary • When recalling memories, tend to tilt their heads and use level eye movement
Kinaesthetic Learners …… • Prefer to learn by doing • Good at recalling events • Associate feelings or physical experiences with memory • Enjoy physical activity, field trips, manipulating objects, • Prefer practical first-hand experience • Often find it difficult to keep still • Need regular breaks in classroom activities • Access information while looking down
There are clues in the language they use: • I see what you mean • I get the picture • I hear what you are saying • It sounds good to me • I feel this way • Hang in there • Get to grips with
Children with learning difficulties often display great difficulty with particular learning approaches, especially auditory. • Children with behavioural difficulties are predominantly kinaesthetic learners
‘Health Warnings’ • It is beneficial for learners to be aware of their preferred learning approaches – metacognition • However, it is not helpful to “label” learners and can limit their adaptability and motivation and your expectations. • Given a choice, a learner will adopt the preferred learning style and avoid less favoured approaches. • Good learners can access learning equally well through all 3 modalities.
If you want to know more: • Explore the literature of NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming) which is where much of the VAK material originates • But BEWARE! Many researchers / educators feel strongly that this material has little scientific / research basis! See article in reading pack.
For teachers … • Research into learning styles stresses cognitive diversity • A one-size pedagogy / curriculum does not fit all - good teachers have always known this! • SO… good teachers present learning in all 3 modalities – see video in today’s seminar for an excellent demonstration! • But beware! We tend to teach as we prefer to learn – through our own preferred learning styles.
“However well matched teaching and learning styles may be, the incorporation of new knowledge in a cognitive pattern, as intended by the teacher, is not guaranteed.” (Coates in West-Burnham & Coates, 2005 p. 61)
Information Processing • VAK is not the whole story • Once the information is taken in, it is processed in the brain. • Learning occurs when new knowledge is incorporated into existing knowledge • Information processing by the brain will give significance to some pieces of information & discard others.
Theories of Intelligence • Nature – genetic, fixed • Nurture – can be changed • Margaret McMillan • Sure Start / High Scope • Real answer lies somewhere in between
Testing Intelligence • IQ tests allow people to be grouped • Popular with administrators & policy makers • Used for pupils with SEN • 11+ exam
Limitations • Putting numbers on intelligence, particularly for young children, carries risks • Genetic impact not fully known • Impact of environment / nutrition still not fully understood • Differences between groups not fully explained • IQ seems to be rising – 3 points every 10 years – reasons not fully understood • Important aspects of behaviour e.g. creativity, social sensitivity, wisdom, are nor measured by IQ tests. (Pound, L (2008) How Children Learn (2) Londin: Step Forward Publishing)
In school … • Which kinds of intelligence do schools traditionally rely on most heavily? • How can all children be helped to demonstrate and develop their personal strengths? • What are the implications for teaching?
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences • This originates from Howard Gardner’s seminal work Frames of Mind (1983) • Gardner believes each learner has a different profile of intelligences • This will affect the way in which learners approach problems and the ease with which new ideas might be understood, depending on how they are presented
Gardner (1999) defines intelligence as … a bio-psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture. 1999 p.33-34
Gardner’s multiple intelligences are: • Interpersonal • Intra-personal • Linguistic • Mathematical and Logical • Visual and Spatial • Kinesthetic • Musical • Naturalist • Spiritual & Moral (Existential) From Howard Gardner’s seminal work Frames of Mind (1983)
So what does all this mean for teachers & learners? • “Research indicates that the single biggest factor limiting pupil achievement has been teacher beliefs about their pupils’ ability and beliefs.” (West-Burnham & Coates 2005 p.65)
Bibliography / suggested further reading: • Conner, M. & Hodgins, W. (2000) Learning Styles,www.learnativity.com/learningstyles.html • Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Gardner, H. (2000) Intelligence Reframed: multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. New York: Basic Books • Smith, A & Call, N. (1999) The ALPS Approach: Accelerated Learning in Primary Schools. Stafford: Network Educational Press • West-Burnham, J. & Coates, M. (2005) Personalizing Learning: Transforming education for every child. Stafford: Network Educational Press