The American Civil War 1861-1865
Why Did They Fight Class Reading • Union • 1. The Union • 2. Anti-slavery • 3. Democracy • Confederate • 1. State’s Rights • 2. Slavery • 3. Liberty
Overview of the North’sCivil War Strategy: “Anaconda”Plan Designed by General Winfield Scott 5-7 years Old generals, Old equipment Old Navy No direct attack on Richmond
Civil War Geography • Fought from New Mexico to Pennsylvania • Most battles are fought in the Confederates states • Virginia sees the most battles
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker George McClellan,Again! Ambrose Burnside Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade
The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens
The Confederate Generals George Pickett Jeb Stuart Nathan Bedford Forrest “Stonewall” Jackson James Longstreet Robert E. Lee
Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861 Civilians come out to watch 14 hour fight Turning point: Confederates hold off a Union attack ( ‘Stonewall’ Jackson) Union retreats in chaos- ‘Rebel Yell’
The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862 The Monitor vs.the Merrimac Forever Changes Naval Warfare First torpedoes(mines) First Submarine
Reading Assignment-Civil War Reading Packet • Read the packet and answer the section questions. • Due Friday
Bell work • 1. Name 4 Union states, 4 Confederate states, and 3 border states. • 2. List 2 advantages for both the Union and Confederacy • 3. List 2 disadvantages for both the Union and Confederacy • 4. Name the Union strategy for the war. What are the two main steps of this plan. • 5. What state sees the most battles during the war? • 6. Who is the main general of both the Union and Confederacy?
The Civil War 1862 • Grant works his way through Tennessee to take the Mississippi • McClellan marches toward Richmond • Lee invades Maryland • Battle of Antietam • “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” • September 17, 1862 • 23,000 casualties • List 3 facts about the Battle of Antietam you learned from the video.
The Emancipation Proclamation • Issued in September • January 1, 1863 • The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." • Doesn’t apply to border states. Why? • Doesn’t make ‘freedmen’ citizens • Adds a key moral cause for the Union • Encourages many slaves to runaway • Allows ‘freedmen’ to join military • Ends Prisoner exchanges between the North and South • Does it end Slavery? • Yes and No • Contraband rule-seize enemy property
The Famous 54th Massachusetts Fort Pillow Massacre-April 1864 Over 300 African American soldiers are killed while surrendering Nathan Bedford Forrest
Increased Government Power • Both sides begin a draft • Lincoln shuts down newspapers who were critical of him • Lincoln suspends the writ of Habeas Corpus • Lincoln creates the (IRS), first tax on income • Sin Tax • National currency-Greenbacks
Conscription-The Draft • A bounty was offered to soldiers who enlisted • Bounty jumping • The Enrollment Act(1863) • Ways to avoid the draft • 1. Pay a fee • 2. Hire a substitute • 3. Move away • A rich man’s war, A poor man’s fight • Draft Primary Source Reading • How would you react to a draft today? • Should women be required by law to sign up for the selective service?
Gettysburg Casualties Gettysburg Address
Sherman’s“Marchto theSea”throughGeorgia,1864 “Total War” ‘War is Hell’
1864 Election Pres. Lincoln (R) George McClellan (D)
The Assassin John Wilkes Booth