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family AIDS work future? Topics • biography • political career • time in prison • peace work
Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela was born in Mvezo near Umtata on 18th July 1918 his father Henry Mgdala Mandela was a chief of the Thembus his family was quite wealthy Mandela had a happy childhood at the age of nine he lost his father he was given his British name “Nelson“ at a Methodist school Biography
1939: Mandela studied at “Fort Hare College“, where he met Oliver Tambo there he was first confronted with the injustice of the supremacy¹ of the whites • after a students‘ strike Mandela and Tambo were expelled² • he met Walter Sisulu who arranged a place at “Witwatersrand university“ where he finished his law studies ¹ - Vormachtsstellung ² - verwiesen
Political career • as a student Mandela got involved in the political opposition which struggled for equal rights for the black majority • 1944: he joined the African National Congress (ANC) and two years later he founded the Youth League of the ANC (ANCYL) with Tambo and Sisulu • after the National Party had won the election¹ the ANC was forced to fight harder against Apartheid ¹ - Wahl
Mandela demanded: → the preservation¹ of full citizenship for everyone → direct representation² of all South-Africans in Parliament → the right of trade unions, education and culture for everyone → compulsory school attendance³ for everybody • 1952: Mandela, who had become the president of the ANC and ANCYL, travelled through the country to call upon the population to protest • because of this Defiance Campaign4 he received a nine months suspended sentence with probation5 1 – Erhaltung 2 – Vertretung 3 – Schulpflicht 4 – Missachtungskampagne 5 – auf Bewährung
1956: Mandela and others were accused of high treason¹ 1961: the defendants were set free • 1960: after the Sharpeville massacre the ANC was forbidden his attitude changed, he accepted that violence was necessary • 1961: Mandela founded the armed wing of the ANC, the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the nation) • because of forbidden journeys abroad he was sentenced to five years imprisonment • police found documents of the ANC which incriminated² Mandela and other members they were condemned³ to lifelong imprisonment ¹- Hochverrat ² - belasten ³- verurteilt
Time in prison • He spent 18 years of his prison time on Robben Island → lived in a 4 sqm- cell → black prisoners weren‘t considered to be human beings • they developed the so-called “Mandela University“ where they passed on the political views and the history of the ANC 1982: they were sent to Pollsmore Prison • 1985: Mandela refused a possibility to get free because he would have to stop fighting violently
many people demonstrated for Mandela‘s release¹ → also many important politicians visited him • 1988: he was moved to a prison near Paarl, where he didn‘t feel like a prisoner any more • Frederik Willem de Klerk became leader of the National Party and president of south Africa → he abolished the ban on the ANC • after the pressure of the ANC and foreign organisations and with the help of de Klerk Mandela was released in 1990 ¹ - Freilassung
Peace work • 1990-1994: after his release he started to negotiate¹ with all sections of the population → Mandela and de Klerk received the Noble Peace Prize • 1994: Mandela became the first democratically elected president of South Africa • he fought for better relationships between the black and the white population • he developed a new constitution² • 1999: Mbeki, who was also his successor³ in the ANC, replaced him as president • 2000: he worked as a mediator in Burundi and helped to develop a peace treaty4 1 – verhandeln 2 – Verfassung 3 - Nachfolger 4 - Friedensvertrag
Family • Mandela has been married three times • 1944: marriage with Evelyn Ntoko Mase → they had five children, but two died → 1957: the marriage was divorced • 1958: he married Winnie Nomzamo Madikizela → they had a son together, Makgatho Mandela → 1996: they were divorced • 1998: Mandela married Graça Machel • January 2005: Mandela’s second son died of AIDS
AIDS work • 2002: Nelson Mandela‘s worldwide campaign “46664“ against AIDS was founded → 46664 was his prison number on Robben Island • aim of the organisation is to inform people about AIDS and how important it is to protect oneself → live events with famous people such as Will Smith are organized
Future? What will happen when Mandela is dead? • Mandela works for peace between whites and blacks • many blacks are angry at the whites because a lot of them still experienced what Apartheid was like → Mandela stops them from taking revenge • “When Mandela is dead, the whites will die like flies!“ • hypothesis: → civil war? → whites being murdered? → blacks will oppress whites? → or whites will oppress blacks again?
This was a presentation by: Jasmin Baehr Nicole Hübner Paula Zirzow