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MUSCLES!! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MUSCLES!!. 3 Types of Muscles. Smooth Cardiac Skeletal. Smooth Muscle. No striations Single nucleus No/underdeveloped transverse tubules Involuntary Contracts in waves called peristalsis. Peristalsis. Educational: Cardiac Muscle.

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3 types of muscles
3 Types of Muscles
  • Smooth
  • Cardiac
  • Skeletal
smooth muscle
Smooth Muscle
  • No striations
  • Single nucleus
  • No/underdeveloped transverse tubules
  • Involuntary
  • Contracts in waves called peristalsis
  • Educational:
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • Like skeletal muscle but found only in the heart
  • Mononucleated
  • Involuntary
  • Well developed transverse tubule system
  • Contracts as a unit
skeletal muscles
Skeletal Muscles
  • Move bones at joints
  • Voluntary
  • Striated
  • Multiple nuclei
  • Transverse tubules systems– WELL DEVELOPED
  • Within each myofibril are myofilament.
  • Filaments:
    • Actin: Thin
    • Myosin: Thick
  • When a muscle contracts, actin slides past the myosin, shortening the sarcomere.
tropomyosin troponin complex
Tropomyosin-troponin complex
  • Calcium is like a key.
  • Tropomyosin is like a chain around your bike tires
  • Troponin is the lock attached to the chain.
  • The tires are the crossbridge of actin and myosin
  • The pedals are like ATP
neuromuscular junction
Neuromuscular Junction
  • Where the terminal button of the motor neuron meets the motor endplate of the muscle. Includes the synaptic cleft.
  • Acetylcholine (ACh)is the neurotransmitter for muscles.
  • The synaptic vesicles release ACh into the synapse where it stimulates ACh receptors on the muscle fiber to begin contraction.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions

  • Calcium binds to the actin filaments sites, opening them.
  • Myosin heads form cross bridges with actin at the binding site.
  • Cocked position -> Power stroke
  • ATP binds to cross bridge, releasing myosin from the actin
  • ATP breakdown provides energy to “cock” unattached myosin cross bridge.
  • Process repeats as long as there is ATP and calcium available.
energy supply
Energy Supply
  • Myofibrils need oxygen for cellular respiration, which creates a lot of ATP.
    • Muscles can also use creatine phosphate to make ATP.
  • Glycolysis does not need oxygen but only makes a small amount of ATP. A by-product of this reaction is lactic acid.
muscle conditions
Muscle Conditions
  • Muscle fatigue: Lactic acid build up
  • Muscle cramps: A lack of ATP.
  • Soreness : Rips in the muscle.
slow oxidative twitch
Slow oxidative twitch
  • Slow-oxidative twitch muscles have a protein called myoglobin which temporarily holds oxygen. This makes the muscle look dark or red.
  • That way, slow-oxidative twitch is used for aerobic long distance exercise.
fast twitch glycolytic
Fast Twitch Glycolytic
  • Uses glycolysis.
  • White meat because few myoglobin proteins
  • Short distance, anaerobic
  • Less mitochondria
fast twitch oxidative
Fast twitch oxidative
  • In the middle of slow twitch oxidative and fast twitch glycolytic
  • Well vascularized
  • Pink meat
types of contractions
Types of Contractions
  • Isotonic: Change in length
    • Concentric: Shortening of the distance (flexing)
    • Excentric: Elongating muscle (extending)
  • Isometric: Change in force
  • Tetanus
    • Fused: Smooth contraction
    • Unfused: Shaky contraction
  • Myasthenia Gravis (MG): Autoimmune disorder that attacks receptors for ACh at neuromuscular junctions.
    • Symptoms: Abnormal muscle weakness (esp. facial muscles), chronic fatigue, trouble breathing
things to ponder
Things to ponder
  • Do all muscles have fascia?
    • Discuss with class