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Cumulus. Stratus. What causes Clouds?. What are their Names?. Cumulonimbus. Cirrus. Adiabatic lapse rate = Δ T / ∆Alt. Adiabatic means TE insulated air parcel (imaginary box of air). P Vol TE stays the same T. DALR ~ 10 0 C/km.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Cumulus

Stratus

What causes

Clouds?

What are their Names?

Cumulonimbus

Cirrus

how does the temperature change in the troposphere

Adiabatic lapse rate = ΔT / ∆Alt.

  • Adiabatic means TE insulated air parcel (imaginary box of air)

P

Vol

TE stays the same

T

DALR ~ 100C/km

How does the temperature change in the troposphere?

ELR ~ 6.50/km

Altitude

(km)

ΔDew Pt. ~ 20/km

Air Parcel

T(0C)

  • DALR = Dry adiabatic lapse rate = cooling rate for air parcel <dew pt.
  • Moist ALR = cooling rate for a.p. > dew pt. (latent heat release)
  • ELR = Environmental lapse rate = surrounding atm. lapse rate
  • ΔDew pt. = change due to P change
  • Lifting Condensation Level = (DALR-Δdew pt)-1x (TG-dew pt)
  • If ELR<DALR, then air is stable
  • If ELR>DALR, then air is unstable, rising air will gain buoyancy
slide3

Problem: Cumulus clouds are observed on a sunny afternoon. The temperature is 250C and the dew point is 70C. How high are the flat bottoms of the cumulus clouds?

Answer: 2.25 km or 7380 ft.

match the cloud type with the probable lift mechanism s
Match the cloud type with the probable lift mechanism(s).

Cloud TypesLift Mechanism

1. Cumulus: A. Convection

B. Cold fronts

2. Stratus: C. Warm fronts

D. Stationary fronts

3. Cumulonimbus: E. Convergence

F. Orographic lift

4. Cirrus:

A

C D E F

A B

B C D E

name 2 ways that the moisture in an air sample can begin to condense
Name 2 ways that the moisture in an air sample can begin to condense?

1. Lower its temperature!

2. Add moisture!

let s recall a few terms and add one or two
Let’s recall a few terms and add one or two…

Moisture

Evaporation

Condensation

Dew Point

Undersaturation

Saturation

Supersaturation

Lapse rate

Adiabatic

DALR

ELR

Dew Pt. LR

AH

RH

MALR = Moist ALR, the lower LR caused by latent heat release during condensation

what is relative humidity rh
What is relative humidity (RH)?

Relative humidity is a percentage measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to the total amount present at saturation for a given air temperature.

RH = Dv / SDv x 100%

Or

RH = Partial Pv / SPv x 100%

Partial Pv is P of only water molecules attaching to microdroplet

SPv is P of water molecules attaching at dew point

solve these problems about air samples
Solve these problems about air samples?

1. T = 800F, Pv = 35 mb, RH?

RH = 100%

2. T = 700F, Pv = 10.2 mb, RH?

RH = 41%

3. TD = 280C, Pv = 4.6 mb, RH?

RH = 12%

4. RH = 50%, Pv = 14.8 mb, T?

T = 750F

5. T = 900F, RH = 30%, TD?

TD = 540F

6. Air just above the ground has a saturated vapor pressure of 4.0 mb. What phase of water will occur if the ground cools the air to the dew point?

Frost

consider 2 parcels of air
Consider 2 parcels of air…

Parcel 1: T=310F, Td=280F

Parcel 2: T=890F, Td=480F

1. Which parcel has the absolute humidity?

Parcel 2

2. Which one has the highest RH?

Parcel 1

3. Which one will reach its dew point first at equal cooling rates?

Parcel 1

4. If both parcels reach saturation, which one has the highest potential precipitation?

Parcel 2

what happens to rising air

Unstable atm

Stable atm

ELR

-60C/km

MALR: Latent heat released

-5 to -60C/km

Altitude

Td

Td

DALR

-100/km

SPv

Temperature

What happens to rising air?

tropopause

W. Jetstream