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The Water Cycle… from clouds to sea.. from sea to clouds…. Active processes Precipitation events: rain, fog, mist, snow Infiltration and ground and surface water flow events eventual discharge into creeks and rivers root adsorption

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Presentation Transcript
the hydrologic cycle water cycle as an active model
Active processes

Precipitation events: rain, fog, mist, snow

Infiltration and ground and surface water flow events

eventual discharge into creeks and rivers

root adsorption

Water enters back into the atmosphere in the form of water vapor

Vapors condense, form clouds, and result in another precipitation event

The hydrologic cycle: Water cycle as an active model

Animation from: http://www.nps.gov/olym/hand/process/wcycle.gif

slide4

The Water Cycle on the Coast…. from sea to land

…….. is a microcosm of the global cycle

http://www.hko.gov.hk/education/edu01met/wxphe/ele_fog_fig2e.png

slide6

Outline:

1. Reservoirs

2. Movement among reservoirs

3. Storage and “Residence time”

in a reservoir

4. Water and climate change

5. Environmental frameworks for

thinking about water

slide7

Outline:

1. Reservoirs

2. Movement among reservoirs

3. Storage and “Residence time”

in a reservoir

4. Water and climate change

5. Environmental frameworks for

thinking about water

ocean storage
Ocean Storage

What percent of Earth’s water is stored in the oceans?

does the volume of the world s oceans ever change
Does the volume of the world’s oceans ever change?

20,000 years ago: LOWER

Sea level ~400 ft lower )

than today

120,000 years ago: HIGHER

Sea level 18 ft higher than today

3M years B.P.: HIGHER

Sea level 165 ft higher

ice and snow glaciers ice fields and snowfields
ICE AND SNOW:glaciers, ice fields, and snowfields
  • Glacial ice covers 11% of all land
  • Represents a large % of all freshwater
  • Mountain snowfields are “reservoirs” for many water-supply systems
    • 75% in Western States

How much of all freshwater?

how much ground water
How much ground water?
  • Ground water occurs only close to the surface
surface water lakes swamps rivers
Surface Water:Lakes & Swamps & Rivers
  • Lakes swamps account for less than 0.3% of all fresswater:

- 20% is in the Great Lakes

- 20% is in Lake Baikal in Siberia

storage in the atmosphere
Storage in the atmosphere:
  • 0.001%
  • Water vapor
  • Clouds, condensed water vapor

http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/andrew/scs/cs/15-463/f07/proj2/www/aaiordac/images/clouds.jpg

slide16

Outline:

1. Reservoirs

2. Movement among reservoirs

3. Storage in a reservoir

4. Water and climate change

5. Environmental frameworks for

thinking about water

processes moving water through the cycle key atmosphere transport
Processes moving water through the cycle… key Atmosphere Transport

What percent of the water in the atmosphere comes from evaporation?

  • Evaporation

90%

  • Transpiration

10%

slide22

Outline:

1. Reservoirs

2. Movement among reservoirs

3. Storage in a reservoir

4. Water and climate change

5. Environmental frameworks for

thinking about water

mass balance storage a consequence of movements
Mass Balance: Storage, a consequence of movements

Generally:

Inflow (I) – Outflow (O) = Net balance

Globally, we turn this around::

Outflow (O) – Inflow (I) = Net balance

Evaporation (E) - Precipitation (P)

E – P = Net Balance

(Also called the continuity equation,

conservation of mass.)

slide24

GLOBAL NET WATER BALANCE

Tropics:

Convergence

Subtropics:

Divergence

High Latitude:

Convergence

Evaporation

Precipitation

mm/day

Evap-Precip

Latitude

mass balance storage a consequence of movements25
Mass Balance: Storage, a consequence of movements

When thinking on a local scale of land use:

Inflow (I) – Outflow (O) =

± Change in storage (S)

I - O = ± ∆S

(Also called the continuity equation,

conservation of mass.)

slide26

Lake Mead: May, 2000

26

Source: NASA Earth Observatory

slide27

Lake Mead: May, 2003

27

Source: NASA Earth Observatory

slide28

Outline:

1. Reservoirs

2. Movement among reservoirs

3. Storage in a reservoir

4. Limitations:

Water and climate change

5. Framework for thinking

about water

climate change increases water vapor in the atmosphere
Climate Change: Increases Water Vapor in the atmosphere

Atmosphere can hold more water

29

Source: Chow et al., 1988

climate change water balance
Climate Change: water balance
  • Evaporation (E)
    • generally increases across the Earth
  • Precipitation (P)
    • more locations specific, increases and decreases
  • Runoff/recharge (P-E)

Evaporation

Runoff

CRB

Model predictions of change in runoff for double CO2 concentrations.

Precipitation

Source: Held and Soden, 2006

climate change runoff
Climate Change – Runoff
  • Precipitation trends controlled by wind circulation
  • Trends intensify due to climate change:
    • dry areas become drier
    • wet areas become wetter

Source: Maidment CE 394K.2 class notes, 2008

climate change modeled runoff
Climate Change: Modeled runoff

Source: Milly et al., 2008

Annual average of change in runoff compared to the global modeling average.

climate change water vapor
Climate Change: Water Vapor
  • The atmosphere can “hold more water vapor” at higher temperatures
  • This produces more clouds, which can act to both warming
  • Therefore, increased water vapor in the atmosphere will further act to increase surface temperature and evaporation
  • This will further increase atmospheric water vapor concentrations
  • BUT, same amount of water, redistributed in reservoirs
slide34

Outline:

1. Reservoirs

2. Movement among reservoirs

3. Storage in a reservoir

4. Water and climate change

5. Environmental framework for

thinking about water

a framework for thinking about water issues
A framework for thinking about water issues

quantity

quality

direct

human

health

environment

a breakdown of water use in the us consumptive returned
A breakdown of water use inthe US,consumptive +returned

Public supply, 11%

Domestic, >1%

Agriculture, 36%

Industrial, 5%

Mining, >1%

Thermoelectric, 48%

from USGS, 2000

irrigation in the us
Irrigation in the US

Total withdrawals, 2000

USGS

water use in illinois
Water use in Illinois

1950-1998, excluding power generation

Illinois State Water Survey

regional changes in storage
Regional changes in storage

The Ogallala, the largest freshwater aquifer in the world. Saturated thickness

1980-1997 

1996-7

teleconnections in the hydrologic cycle
Teleconnections in the hydrologic cycle

4

2

0

Forests

Jan

Jul

Dec

Grasslands

8

Croplands

4

0

Jan

Jul

Dec

Regional to global effects on precipitation:

model results from deforesting Amazonia

before

after

Precip, mm/yr

before

after

Precip, mm/yr

Avissar and Werth (2004),

Journal of Hydrometeorology

hydrological cycle
Hydrological Cycle

http://watercycle.gsfc.nasa.gov/