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ELEMENT 3 The Human Body. 3.5 The Senses 3.6 The Eye and Vision 3.7 The Ear and Hearing 3.8 The Inner Ear and Balance 3.9 Sensory Inputs and Spatial Disorientation. AIM & END STATE. Aim: To discuss the senses and how they relate to human performance limitations End state:

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element 3 the human body

ELEMENT 3The Human Body

3.5 The Senses

3.6 The Eye and Vision

3.7 The Ear and Hearing

3.8 The Inner Ear and Balance

3.9 Sensory Inputs and Spatial Disorientation

aim end state
AIM & END STATE
  • Aim:
    • To discuss the senses and how they relate to human performance limitations
  • End state:
    • A greater understanding of the human body’s strengths and weaknesses
  • References: In the CRM Reference Manual.

3.0

senses
SENSES
  • How many senses do we have?
    • Classic senses are five but perhaps up to 21
    • Nine senses are commonly agreed upon and are tested in aircrew medicals
  • A sense is an ability tointerpretinformation about our environment that has been detected througha sensor, egchemorecptors in the nose.

3.5

senses1
SENSES
  • The extra senses we shall investigate:
    • Equilibrioception – balance
    • Thermoception – ability to detect heat/cold
    • Proprioception – ability to tell where the body is in relation to the environment
    • Nocioception – ability to detect pain.
  • Equilibrioception and Proprioception are tested by aviation physicians during aircrew medicals.

3.5.1.2

senses2
SENSES
  • Sensory Thresholds
    • The limit of the ability to detect a change in a stimulus: Absolute, Recognition, Differential, Terminal.
  • Sensory Sensitivity
    • Detection ability (1st meaning) or a disorder where a person experiences a debilitating sensory overload from everyday experiences, eg touching fabric or a bad smell.

3.5.2

sensoreceptors
SENSORECEPTORS
  • Stimuli detected through SensoReceptors:

3.5.4

the eye
THE EYE
  • Most important sensor for humans
  • More than 80% of our sensory information about our environment comes through our eyes.

3.6

the eye1
THE EYE
  • Light passes through the cornea and lens and falls upon theretina, focussing inparticular on thefovea centralis
  • Accommodation isthe way the lens isbent by ciliary musclesto focus light.

3.6.2.1

the eye2
THE EYE
  • Rods and Cones are photoreceptors thatdetect light
    • Cones detect colour anddetail – day/central vision
    • Rods detect low lightlevels and movementnight/peripheral vision
  • Rhodopsin and Iodopsinare two chemicals thathelp in light detection.

3.6.2.2

the eye3
THE EYE
  • Visual Acuity (VA) is the ability to discriminate the fine details of an object thus is a requirement of depth perception
  • VA is measured as a fraction (20/20 imp 6/6 metric)
    • 20/40 or 6/12 is half as good as the average
  • VA can be affected by disorders such as
    • Myopia (shortsightedness)
    • Hyperopia (long sightedness).

3.6.3

the eye4
THE EYE
  • Presbyopia
    • Loss of VA due to age
    • Becomes very noticeable in a person’s 40s
    • Reduction in suppleness of the lens and weakness in the ciliary muscles causes a reduction in accommodation
    • Hard to read fine print; things are a little blurry; hard to focus between distances; eye strain after reading for a long time.

3.6.3.2

the eye5
THE EYE
  • Visual Field
    • What a person can see. Depends on light falling on the retina (central and peripheral vision)
  • Binocular Vision
    • FOV 200 deg both eyes; 160 deg one eye
    • Uses parallax error for depth perception to approx 12m
    • Provide Visual Summation: two eyes are 41% more effective at detecting stimuli than one eye.

3.6.4

the eye6
THE EYE
  • Depth Perception: the ability to estimate distances without measuring them
    • Relative Size
    • Interposition
    • Linear Perspective
    • Aerial Perspective
    • Light and Shade
    • Monocular Movement Parallax

3.6.4.2

the eye7
THE EYE
  • Blind Spots: areas on the retina that do not receive light information
    • Day Blind Spot:
      • Optic Disc
      • No cones
    • Night Blind Spot
      • Fovea Centralis
      • No rods
      • Offset visionby 10-20 deg.

3.6.5

the eye8
THE EYE
  • Glaucoma: Pressure build up in the corneal area (anterior and posterior chambers) causes damage to the fovea
    • Usually gradual
    • Can easily bechecked
    • Easily fixed ifcaught earlybefore damage to retina is done.

3.6.6

the eye9
THE EYE
  • Hypoxia and Colour Vision: Vision affected by loss of oxygen, especially at night
    • 10% at 5,000’ and 28% at 10,000’ PA especially during mesopic(dawn/dusk) periods
    • Breathing oxygen increases visual acuity and colour discrimination.

3.6.7

the ear
THE EAR
  • The Ear: Primary organ of audition; second most important organ for humans
    • Detects sounds
    • Inner ear detects balance
    • Pressure waves in the air(sound waves) are caughtby the pinna, funnelled intothe auditory canal to theeardrum which vibrates.

3.7

the ear1
THE EAR
  • The vibrations are transmitted through the ossicles to the cochleawhere they are detected bymechanoreceptorsthat induce a signal to the brain
  • Semi-Circular Canalsdetect movementby detecting radial andlinear accelerations.

3.7.1

the ear2
THE EAR
  • Hearing Loss: Two main categories:
    • Conductive
      • Damage or blockagedue to injury or diseaseto the outer and/ormiddle ear
    • Sensorineural
      • Usually caused bydamage to the inner ear’s stereocilia cellsdue to exposure to loud noise.

3.7.3

the ear3
THE EAR
  • Noise Induced Hearing Loss:
    • Part of the speech range in the audible range is first to go.

3.7.3

the ear4
THE EAR
  • Balance: Equilibrioception is through the organs of the inner ear
    • Semi-Circular Canalsarranged in x,y,z axes
    • Otoliths arranged in x,y axes in utricle
    • Detects movement byrelative movement ofendolymph fluid in SCCor by small crystals in gelatinous mix in utricle.

3.7.3

disorientation
DISORIENTATION
  • Spatial Disorientation (SD) is the inability of the operator (eg pilot) to understand where the apparatus (eg aircraft) is in relation to the earth.
  • Usually due to poor interpretation of, or weak sensory stimuli, especially:
    • Vision, Equilibrioceptionand Proprioception
  • ATSB says that the career incidence of SD occurs to 90 to 100% of pilots… (it will happen to you)

3.9

disorientation1
DISORIENTATION
  • Types of SD:
    • Type 1: SD is not recognised by individual
      • Acft usually remains under control but is flown into a dangerous situation (eg terrain)
    • Type 2: SD is confusing but not incapacitating
      • Operator knows something is wrong. Information does not correlate with what the body/mind is saying
    • Type 3: SD is incapacitating, potentially fatal
      • Operator is physically/psychologically overwhelmed and is usually unable to recover from the situation.

3.9.1

disorientation2
DISORIENTATION
  • Vertigo – usually associated with an abnormality in the vestibular organ. Similar effect to SD
    • Flicker vertigo: caused by flashing light 1 Hz to 20 Hz
    • Often in helicopter ops:
      • Front seats occupantsor patients lying in rearwhere the sun canflicker throughrotor blades.

3.9.2

disorientation3
DISORIENTATION
  • Pressure Vertigo – due to imbalance in pressure between middle ears – often due to imbalanced valsalva attempt
  • Medical Vertigo – usually due to temporary problem in middle ear
  • All types of vertigo will cause dizziness, nausea and disorientation to some degree
  • Can happen to anyone at anytime.

3.9.2

disorientation4
DISORIENTATION
  • Categories of SD:
    • Somatogyral: Dark Night Take Offs
    • Somatogravic: Graveyard spiral
    • Visual:IllusionscausingSD

3.9.3

disorientation5
DISORIENTATION
  • Black Hole Approach: Illusion of excessive altitude when there are no lights below the aircraft during an approach
    • Often leads to incorrect control inputs
  • Boeing study found that 52% of accidents/fatalities occur during the last 4% of flight (approach/landing phase)
    • Most of those were due to pilot error when no precision approach aid (glidepath) was used.

3.9.3