World War IHome Front Ms. Krall
Review- Bell Ringer Why did the United States remain neutral? Compare packet with your neighbor Traditional policy of staying out of European affairs Divided loyalties of Americans Lack of preparedness Financial advantage
April 2, 1917 Woodrow Wilson asks for a declaration of War from Congress. Goal was to make the world safe for Democracy
Rallying Public Opinion U.S. had only 120,000 enlisted men and 80,000 National Guardsmen. Led to Selective Service Act of May 1917 which required all men between ages of 21-40 (later 18-45) to sign up for military service. By November 1918 more than 24 million men had registered for the draft. Lottery picked 3 million to serve in war.
Rallying Public Opinion Committee of Public Information-headed byGeorge Creel. Sent out over 75,000 men to deliver speeches (“Four minute men”)hand out posters, songs, movies.
The American Creed A nation wide essay contest was held to create an American creed and to represent patriotism in the US. William Tyler Page, former Congressional Page penned the winning entry in 1918. “I believe in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed, a democracy in a republic, a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes. I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its Constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies.”
Activity • What does the 1st Amendment say? • “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” • Rephrase it!
Not everyone supported the war Some Unions (IWW) did not because the relationship between govt. and business Many had ties to Europe due to recent immigration During World War I
However, the government tried to suppress anti-government speech by passing three acts. Sedition Act Espionage Act Trading with the Enemy Act. Restrictions on Free Speech
Espionage Act • SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States, or to promote the success of its enemies, or shall willfully make or convey false reports, or false statements, . . . or incite insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct . . . the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, or . . . shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the Constitution of the United States, or the military or naval forces of the United States . . . or shall willfully display the flag of any foreign enemy, or shall willfully . . . urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production . . . or advocate, teach, defend, or suggest the doing of any of the acts or things in this section enumerated and whoever shall by word or act support or favor the cause of any country with which the United States is at war or by word or act oppose the cause of the United States therein, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years…
Sedition Act • An addition to the Espionage Act • Made it a crime to “utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the United States' form of government.”
Trading with the Enemy Act • “Suspension of provisions relating to ally of enemy; regulation of transactions in foreign exchange of gold or silver, property transfers, vested interests, enforcement and penalties” • “Contracts, mortgages, or pledges against or with enemy or ally of enemy; abrogation of contracts; suspension of limitations”
Public Opinion • Anti-immigrant sentiment: • wave of nativism strikes country • German citizens targeted • Espionage and Sedition Act: • Much like Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 • a person could be fined or jailed for interfering with war effort or saying anything disloyal or profane about gov’t or war effort • Eugene Debs went to prison for 10 yrs for violating this act • Schenckv. United States; • legalizes that certain 1st amendment rights can be taken away during times of war and crisis • upholds Espionage and Sedition Acts
Securing Homeland Security Supreme Court declared that at certain times the right to free speech can be limited if it endangers public safety in wartime. (“clear and present danger” clause.)
Stimulation the War Economy Congress imposed a rule that made any unemployed man available to go into the war, which discouraged strikes. War industries board- helped army to be prepared by settling any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war effort. The largest Union (American Federation of Labor) supported the war but the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) did not.
Stimulation the War Economy Leaders of businesses supported govt. regulation, took a pay cut and became known as “Dollar a Year Men” War was financed through Liberty Loans(savings bonds.)
Conservation at Home Americans were urged to conserve materials that could be used for the war effort. “Heatless, meatless, wheatless” days. Fueland Food Administrations created (Daylight savings Time.) “Victory gardens” were created
Results of the New Organized economy • Unemployment virtually disappeared. • Expansion of “big government.” • Excessive govt. regulations • Close cooperation between public and private sectors. • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
The war affects Americans • Many German and Hungarian Americans faced discrimination. • Women filled factory jobs and worked as nurses for he Army, Navy, and Coast Guard. • Led to the 19th Amendment.
For African Americans 369th Regiment (also called “Hell Fighters” by the Germans) was one of the few black regiments that fought actively in WW I. • Great Migration • Movement of African Americans to the North • Able to escape Jim Crow laws • Able to fill jobs left by soldiers and decreased immigration • Those who fought were in segregated units. Two fought in combat units under French command.
Epidemic Breaks Out World War brought disease to a new level large groups of people were exposed to: unsanitary conditions, close working and living quarters poor living conditions at war Influenza (flu) outbreak of 1918 spread all over the world 1/4 of the U.S. fell victim and ½ million died as many as 40 million dead worldwide affected US economy—businesses temporarily closed & cities ran out of caskets
Over there! Johnnie get your gun, get you gun, get your gun,Take it on the run, on the run, on the run,Hear them calling you and me;Every son of LibertyHurry right away, no delay, go today,Make your daddy glad to have had such a ladTell your sweetheart not to pine,To be proud her boy's in line.Chorus:Over There, Over ThereSend the word, send the word, Over ThereThat the Yanks are coming, The Yanks are coming,The drums rum tumming everywhereSo prepare, Say a PrayerSend the word,Send the word to bewareWe'll be over, we're coming over.And we won't be back till it's over over there!Johnnie get your gun, get you gun, get your gun,Johnnie show the Hun, you're a Son-of-a-Gun,Hoist the flag and let her flyLike true heros do or diePack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit,Soldiers to the ranks from the towns and the tanks,Make your Mother proud of you and to Liberty be true.
Welcome Back—Bell Ringer What was the principal Union that did not support the war? What were the three laws passed by Congress to limit dissent during the war?