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World War I American Home Front

World War I American Home Front

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World War I American Home Front

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  1. World War I American Home Front

  2. Liberty Bonds

  3. Financing the War • Liberty Bonds—special war bonds to support the Allied cause • Raised $20 billion • Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts set up booths • Committee on Public Information—George Creel • Famous actors led public rallies • “Four-minute men” gave a four minute speech before movies, plays and school or union meetings

  4. New Agencies • War Industries Board • Lots of power—gave out raw material, told manufacturers what to produce, how much to produce, and fixed prices • War Trade Board punished firms suspected of dealing with the enemy • Labor leader Samuel Gompers  limit labor problems in war production industries

  5. Regulating Food & Fuel • Lever Food and Fuel Control Act (1917) • Gave president power to manage food and fuel • Could ration food to people • “Gospel of the Clean Plate” • Gasless Days • Daylight Saving Time • Reduced artificial light use

  6. Enforcing Loyalty • News and information controlled by government (censorship) • Banned movie on American Revolution because it showed British soldiers killing Americans • Produced short films and pamphlets explaining war aims • Example slogans: “Buy Bonds till it hurts” and “The soldier gives-you must lend”

  7. Fear the Foreigners • Fear of German secret agents • Limits on immigration • National Security League: “100 Percent Americanism” • Got Congress to pass a literacy test for immigrants

  8. The Hun

  9. “Hate the Hun” • Hun = nickname based on people who had brutally invaded Europe • High Schools stopped teaching German • Changed language • German measles  Liberty measles • Hamburger  Salisbury steak • German shepherds  police dogs • Saurekraut liberty cabbage • Lynching of German-born citizens

  10. Sedition Act

  11. Repression of the Civil Liberties • Espionage Act (1917) = illegal to interfere with the draft • Sedition Act (1918) = illegal to obstruct sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive” about American gov’t • Pursued over 1,500 cases; won 1,000 convictions • Eugene Debs got a 10-year jail sentence

  12. Changing People’s Lives • African Americans • The Great Migration: African Americans move north for jobs in manufacturing during the war • Women • 400,000 women joined the labor force during the war

  13. Social Mobility for Women

  14. Propaganda on the Home Front • Sort each of the posters into the category you feel it BEST fits: • Financing the war • Conservation (food/fuel) • Production at home (gardens, factories) • Encouraging soldiers to join • Encouraging women’s efforts Prompt #6: Choose THREE posters from different categories and explain the visuals chosen and the overall message

  15. American Red Cross

  16. Nationalism in the US