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Stocking rate. pasture production = animal production / ha = animal production / head * no of animal / ha = animal production / head * stocking rate. Animal unit. 400 kg Steer = 1 AU. Calf (1-8 mo) = 0.35 AU. Weaner (8-12 mo) = 0.4 AU. Steer (1-2 yr) = 0.87 AU.

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stocking rate
Stocking rate

pasture production = animal production / ha

= animal production / head * no of animal / ha

= animal production / head * stocking rate

animal unit
Animal unit

400 kg Steer = 1 AU.

Calf (1-8 mo) = 0.35 AU.

Weaner (8-12 mo) = 0.4 AU.

Steer (1-2 yr) = 0.87 AU.

Breeder Cow = 2.0 AU.

Bull = 2.0 AU

40 kg Merino = 1 dse.

Wether = 1 dse.

Maiden ewe = 1 dse.

Lamb = 0.5 dse.

Breeding ewe = 1.7 dse.

Ram = 1.7 dse

dse. = dry sheep equivalent

1AU. = 8 dse.

slide3

?

  • Carrying capacity =
  • Grazing pressure = utilise / production

= feed demand / pasture mass

= feed demand / head * no. of animal / ha

pasture mass / ha

= no. of animal / pasture area

slide4

Animal production / head

animal production / ha

The relationship between grazing pressure or stocking rate on animal production per head and per area.

Grazing pressure

factors control optimum stocking rate
Factors control optimum stocking rate
  • pasture growth rate
  • availability of pasture mass to animal (allowance)
  • nutritional quality
  • botanical composition & ground cover
  • seasonal variation
  • type of enterprise and animal products
pasture growth rate
Pasture growth rate

Pasture availability

  • rainfall (seasonal)
  • soil fertility
  • farm management

LWG

(kg/head/wk)

Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) sward

Pasture availability (allowance; kg/head)

lwg vs n availability
LWG vs N availability
  • N < 4 kg/head LWG is negative
  • optimum N = 36 kg/head LWG = 0.8 kg/head/d

LWG

(kg/head)

N0 N134 N336N672

LWG

(kg/ha)

2 4 6 8 12 16

Stocking rate (AU/ha)

fertilizer management on botanical composition and carrying capacity of pasture
Fertilizer management on botanical composition and carrying capacity of pasture
  • Heteropogon contortus + Stylosanthes humilis

carrying capacity = 0.7 AU./ha

  • if SR = 1.1 AU./ha less pasture mass and more weed (Fimbristylis dichotoma)
  • if + 250 kg P / ha of Super Phosphate more pasture mass and carrying capacity = 1.2 AU./ha
accessibility of forage to animal pasture allowance
Accessibility of forage to animal (Pasture allowance)
  • Road & walk way
  • Shelter & pen feeding
  • Continuous grazing systems vs. working hour grazing time
  • Drinking water : 5km for cattle, 1.5 km for small ruminants
  • Fencing
nutritive value of pasture
Nutritive value of pasture
  • Selective grazing = การเลือกกินอาหารของสัตว์ เท่ากับเป็น การปรับปรุงคุณภาพอาหารด้วยตัวสัตว์เอง
  • Intake and digestibility are limited by nutritive value
  • Fertilizer input will enhance intake and nutritive value of pasture
  • Supplementary feed
stocking rate vs botanical composition
Stocking rate vs botanical composition

Species Stocking rate (head/ha)

2.51.2

Chloris gayana 717

Digitaria decumbens 2030

Paspalum commersonii 53

Paspalum dilatatum 3313

Desmodium uncinatum01

Desmodium intortum114

Lotononis binensii21

Trifolium repens95

others 2216

effect of sr on bc of shade intorelant spp
Effect of SR on BC of shade intorelant spp.

Attribute SR (AU./ha)

3.3 2.5 1.7

LWG (kg/ha) 117 118 119

Pasture yield (kg/ha)

Total 2 170 2 850 3 170

S. humilis 1 640 1 920 1 840

% legume 75 67 58

N yield (kg/ha) 41 48 49

% N in pasture 1.88 1.68 1.54

mott 1960 s model
Mott (1960)’s model

Animal production / head

Animal production / ha

Under grazing Optimum Over

Low SR Optimum Over

Grazing pressure

slide14

Yh = a SR - b SR 2

LWG (kg/ha)

LWG = a - b (SR)

a reflect to nutritive value of pasture and genetic potential of animal

b reflect to pasture mass or yield or allowance or response of pasture to stocking rate

.5 1 2 3 4 5 6

Stocking rate (AU./ha)

sward structure
Sward structure
  • Intake , Eadible or utilizable= < pasture mass or yield
  • Sward density = structure = bulk density = yield/area/height of pasture
  • Animal will selective graze at top of sward, then if forced by high SR or longer interval it will graze pasture of lower quality hence bite size and rate will be affected, since these depend on bulk or sward density
pasture utilization period
Pasture utilization period
  • Grazed / cut period
    • defoliation regimes
    • trampling
    • excretion
    • seasonal
    • continuous parasite cycle
  • Rest period
    • regrowth
    • weed control
    • irrigation
    • fertilizer application
    • flowering and seed production
    • altering life cyle of parasite
general guide for optimum stocking rate after jones et al 1984
General guide for optimum stocking rate(after Jones, et al. 1984)

Total Subtropical Tropical

rainfall tropical temperate Nshort wet long wet N

(mm/yr) legume legume fertilizerseason season fertilizer

750 0.8-1.5 1.0-2.5 2-40.3-1.0 - -

1000 1.0-3.0 1.5-3.5 3-60.5-1.5 1.5-3.0 3-6

1500 1.5-3.0 2.0-4.0 4-70.7-1.5 2.0-4.0 5-8

2000 2.0-4.0 2.0-5.0 5-81.0-2.0 3.0-4.0 7-10

grazing systems
Grazing systems
  • Continuous ระบบจำเจ หรือ ต่อเนื่อง
  • Rotational ระบบหมุนเวียน
  • Repeated seasonal ระบบประจำฤดู
  • Strip ระบบเป็นแถบ
  • Creep ระบบแบ่งขนาดสัตว์
  • Defered ระบบชะลอการแทะเล็ม
  • Zero ตัดให้สัตว์กิน
stocking rate grazing system
Stocking rate & grazing system
  • Set stock
  • Variable stock
    • buying
    • selling
  • Continuous grazing system
  • Rotational grazing system
slide20

Continuous 14 days on 7 days on

28 days off 35 days off

Dry season 1.14 1.03 0.77

Wet season 1.42 1.38 1.28

3-5 days on 7 days on

14 days off 28 days off

Dry season 1.30 0.95

Wet season 2.20 2.28

Continuous vs rotational grazing system on LWG (kg/ha/d) of beef grazed Panicum maximum and Macroptilium atropurpureum cv.Siratro sward

when to graze rest
When to graze / rest ?
  • Stock in (graze)
    • high pasture growth rate
    • not in poor conditions
    • have longest rest period
  • Stock out (rest)
    • low pasture mass harmful to the regrowth
    • low nutitional status
    • poor animal growth
    • invasion of weeds
why rest or rotation the pasture
Why rest or rotation the pasture ?
  • to control botanical composition
  • to have seed set and seed soil reserved
  • to control parasite life cycle
  • for other animal management eg. vaccination, sanitation, reproductive management (AI)
  • for easier farm amnagement eg. fertlizer application, hay or silage making, fencing
electric fence
Electric fence
  • Three types of fencing : perimeter, permanent subdivision, and temporary subdivision
  • voltage generator (energizer)
  • wire fencing, Polywire, Hot-tape, Electric netting, Hi-tensile wire, Barbed wire
  • post
  • is it cheap ?
  • design of the fencing and paddock system
electric fence24
Electric fence

220 v. in

Energizer (voltage generator)

Joule = 1 watt/sec

controller switch

gate post

corner post

slide25
จะเลี้ยงสัตว์ได้เท่าใด (กี่ตัว ต่อไร่) ?

บุญฤา วิไลพล (2526)

  • ทราบผลผลิตพืชอาหารสัตว์ (กก/ไร่/ปี)
  • ทราบขนาดของสัตว์ (กก/ตัว) และอัตราการเจริญเติบโต (กก/ตัว/วัน)
  • ทราบความต้องการอาหารของสัตว์ (3% ของน้ำหนักตัว)
  • คำนวน จำนวนสัตว์ หรือ อัตราสัตว์
how to determine paddock size and number for rotational grazing system after gerrisk jr 1992
How to determine paddock size and number for rotational grazing system (After Gerrisk, JR. 1992)
  • How many animal and what are their size ?
  • Feed requirement (cow / bull = 2.5% of body weight , and calf = 3.0% of body weight)
  • What is the desired % of pasture utilization (eg. 70%)
  • What is the pasture yield (eg. 3000 kg/rai)
  • How would you like the paddock to be rotated (eg. 7 days graze 35 days rest)
  • Determine the size and number of required paddock