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Geographically Distributed Acoustical Monitoring of Migrating Birds. Harold Mills Bioacoustics Research Program Cornell Lab of Ornithology. A Few Birds. Black-and-white Warbler:. Common Yellowthroat:. White-throated Sparrow:. The Birds. Summer north Winter south Migrate spring and fall

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geographically distributed acoustical monitoring of migrating birds

Geographically Distributed Acoustical Monitoring of Migrating Birds

Harold Mills

Bioacoustics Research Program

Cornell Lab of Ornithology

a few birds
A Few Birds

Black-and-white Warbler:

Common Yellowthroat:

White-throated Sparrow:

the birds
The Birds
  • Summer north
  • Winter south
  • Migrate spring and fall
  • Many species migrate at night
  • Stopover habitat important
migration monitoring methods
Migration Monitoring Methods
  • Radar
  • Visual
  • Acoustical
acoustical monitoring
Acoustical Monitoring
  • Provides species identities
  • Automatable
  • Often more effective than visual
    • yields higher counts
    • works in the dark
long term goal
Long-term Goal
  • Simultaneous radar and acoustical monitoring of bird migrations on an intercontinental scale
  • Hundreds of geographically distributed monitoring stations
  • Data collection over the internet
birdcast
BirdCast
  • Simultaneous radar, visual, and acoustical monitoring of bird migration through the Delaware river valley and Ithaca, NY
  • Spring and Fall 2000
  • 9 monitoring stations
  • Data collection over the internet
  • 27000 warbler and sparrow calls in fall
monitoring architecture

Hard Disk

Hard Disk

Database

Monitoring Architecture

Monitoring

Station 1

Monitoring

Station N

Microphone

Microphone

Transient Detector

Transient Detector

Personal

Computer

Personal

Computer

...

Uploader

Browser (Client)

Uploader

Browser (Client)

Internet

Receiver

Browser (Server)

Data

Repository

microphone
Microphone
  • Custom designed and fabricated
  • Includes amplifier/filter
  • Remotely powered for ease of maintenance
  • Well-protected against water and mechanical damage
  • About $150 for parts
microphone10
Microphone

Back

Front

detection algorithm
Detection Algorithm

Source

Audio

Samples

Make

Spectrogram

Measure Total

Inband Power

Estimate Inband

Noise Power,

Compare to

Total Inband Power

Identify

Transients

samples

spectra

powers

bits

transients

Input

Parameters

Spectrogram

Parameters

Detection

Frequency

Band

Noise Power

Estimation Parameters,

Detection Threshold

Minimum Event

Separation,

Min/Max Transient

Duration

The transient detector locates concentrations of energy in a

specified frequency band with durations in a specified range.

It saves located transients in AIFF or WAV audio files.

uploader receiver
Uploader/Receiver
  • Allow detected transients to be uploaded from monitoring stations to central database
  • Use Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) for communication over the Internet
  • Receiver enters each uploaded transient into database and makes JPEG spectrograms for use by browser
browser
Browser
  • Allows all users to view and hear transients stored in database
  • Allows selected users to classify transients
  • Uses Java RMI for communication over the Internet
the future more automation
The Future: More Automation
  • Mass-producible microphones
  • Automatic classification
  • “Live” monitoring stations that upload transients as they are detected
acknowledgements
Programming:

Christina Ahrens

Jason Adaska

Jason Rohrer

Database and Web Site:

BirdSource

Classification:

Chris Tessaglia-Hymes

Station Operation:

Edward Burton

Don Dunsmore

Laurie Goodrich

Charles Hetzel

Steve Kelling

David Mizrahi

Kenneth Rosenberg

Acknowledgements