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Group versus Team. vs. Team. Group. Individuals. Individuals to Group-to-Group Team Continuum. Commonality of Goal. Degree of Interdependence and Collaboration. Adapted from Exhibit 11.1. Work Team Effectiveness Model. Other contextual influences. Organizational goals

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Individuals to Group-to-Group Team Continuum

Commonality of Goal

Degree of Interdependence and Collaboration

Adapted from Exhibit 11.1

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Other contextual influences

  • Organizational goals

  • Opportunities for interaction

  • Psychological factors

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Types of Groups


  • Command

  • Project / Task

  • Committee


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Structural Characteristics & Composition

  • Size

  • Composition

  • Differentiated roles

  • Differentiated status

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Structural Characteristics


  • Social loafing:

  • Process costs:


  • Homogeneous

  • Heterogeneous or diverse

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Composition of Teams


  • Innovative solutions to problems

  • Source of creativity

  • Healthy level of conflict


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Team Member Roles

  • Dual Role

  • Focuses on task and people.

  • May be a team leader.

  • Important role, but not essential if members adopt task specialist and socioemotional roles.

  • Task Specialist Role

  • Focuses on task accomplishment

  • over human needs.

  • Important role, but if adopted by everyone, team’s social needs won’t be met.





  • Nonparticipator Role

  • Contributes little to either task or

  • people needs of team.

  • Not an important role-if adopted by too many members, team will disband.

  • Socioemotional Role

  • Focuses on people needs of

  • team over task.

  • Important role, but if adopted by everyone, team’s tasks won’t be accomplished.



Member Social Behavior


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Structural Characteristics

Role ambiguity

Role conflict


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Team Processes

Indicates progression

Adapted from Exhibit 11.4

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What stage of development is this group in?

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Acceptable standards shared by a group’s members

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Members agree on behavior

Norm is established

Group members meet

Members observe

the behavior of

others to determine

what is appropriate

Members decide if

any past experience

can contribute

effective behaviors

Suggested behavior is tolerated even though disagree with

Members disagree on behavior

Dissenting member withdraws from group

New behavior is suggested

Development of Group Norms

Adapted from Exhibit 11.6

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Early behaviors

Imported behaviors

Critical events


Development of Norms

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Team Cohesiveness

Degree to which team members are attracted to the team and motivated to remain in it

High cohesiveness is attractive feature of team

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  • Positive effects

    • Increased quality and quantity of group interactions

    • Strengthened adherence to group norms

    • Increased effectiveness in achieving group goals

    • Augmented individual satisfaction with group membership

  • Negative effects

    • Useful or creative ideas may be ignored if they deviate from established norms or values

    • Increased probability of developing groupthink

    • Potential decrease in intergroup cooperation

    • Counterproductive norms may be emphasized

Effects of Group Cohesion

Adapted from Exhibit 11.7

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  • Antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another

    • Inevitable

    • Intergroup / Intragroup

    • Positive / Negative

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Types of Conflict

  • Task

  • Process

  • Relationship

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What type of conflict would you expect in this group?

What would be the impact of the conflict?

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Characteristics of Highly Effective Groups

  • Desired Productive Output

  • Satisfaction

    • Cooperation

    • Feelings

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Managers’ Responsibilities

  • Develop appropriate group structures

  • Develop appropriate support from the organization

  • Obtain appropriate coaching and consultation assistance

Adapted from Exhibit 11.11

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As team leader, what would you do know?