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Module Two Growth and Health Chapter 4 OBJECTIVES: How do children grow physically? What can disrupt physical growth? How does the brain grow during this time?
Did you know that humans take the longer to become physically mature than any other animal? We spend about 20% of our lives growing physically!
Physical Growth • The most obvious way to measure physical growth is in terms of sheer size • The averages of height and weight are used as a general measure Example: • Between birth and two, average height increases from 19 to 32 inches and the average weight increases from 7 to 22 pounds • Growth is very rapid in infancy and adolescence
An interesting rule of thumb is that boys achieve half of their adult height by age 2 and girls at 18 months.
Weight Gain • A layer of fat appears under the skin near the end of the prenatal period this helps the fetus and the infant regulate body temperature, this continues to accumulate rapidly during the first year producing what we call “baby fat”. • Infants typically double their birth weight by the fourth month , triple it by the end of the first year and more than quadruple it by 2 years. • During the preschool years, children actually become leaner, but in the elementary school years they begin to acquire more fat
Physical Changes • As children go through growth spurts,body parts develop at different rates, which means that infants and young children are not simply scaled down versions of adults. • The head and trunk grow faster than the legs, making them look top heavy compared to older children and adolescents. • The legs and feet will catch up later in childhood and their bodies take on proportions that are more adult like.
Today, children and adults are taller and heavier than previous generations, due largely to improved health and nutrition These changes from one generation to another are known as Secular Growth Trends
Not only does the concept of “average” growth and development vary by generation, but also by nation. “Average” and “normal” are not the same. This applies not only to physical development, but to all aspects of development
Does SLEEP impact development? It is often taken for granted how much influence sleep has on growth. Sleep is essential for normal growth because 80% of the growth hormone is secreted while children and adolescents sleep (Smock, 1998).
Does sleep effect growth? • The growth hormone is secreted during sleep by the pituitary gland in the brain, which triggers the hormone somatomedin • This hormone causes the bones and muscles to grow • In the last module we discussed how much time infants spend sleeping and that as children grow older the time spent in sleep decreases. • From roughly 12 hours at age 3 • 10 hours at age 7 • 8 hours at age 12
Sleep…. • Sleep also effects the cognitive processes and a child’s adjustment to school. • Children who do not sleep well (waking frequently or lack consistent sleep nightly) are often unable to pay attention in school (Sadeh et al., 2002). • Children with poor sleeping habits are also more likely to disregard teachers’ requests and act aggressively • Establishing a bedtime routine will allow the child to “wind down” and will be more likely to get a restful night’s sleep.
Nutrition • The fuel for growth comes from the foods children eat. Nutrition is particularly important during infancy when physical growth is so rapid. • Because growth requires so much energy, young babies must consume an enormous amount of calories in relation to their body weight.
What’s the best food for babies? Breast versus bottle feeding
The breast is best • Breast-feeding ensures that babies get the nourishment that they need. • Human milk contains the proper amounts of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals for babies. • Breast feeding also has several advantages over bottle feeding (Shelov, 1993).
Breast is Best • Breast-fed babies are ill less often than bottle-fed babies because breast milk contains antibodies that kill bacteria and viruses. • Breast milk is always sterile and at body temperature. • Breast–fed babies are less prone to diarrhea and constipation because breast milk is easier to digest. • Breast-fed babies adjust more rapidly to solid foods because changes in the milk’s taste reflects the mother’s diet (Kail, 2004).
The many benefits of breast-feeding do NOT mean that bottle-feeding is harmful Formula, when prepared in sanitary conditions can generally provide the same benefits as breast milk
While nutritionally formula can be just as good as breast milk, it does not protect infants from disease and infants are often prone to develop allergies from formula.
BUT bottle-feeding does have advantages! • Mothers and family members can still participate in the intimacy of feeding the baby. • Long-term longitudinal studies find that breast-fed and bottle-fed babies are similar in physical and psychological development (Fergusson, 1987). • Today, women in industrialized countries can chose either method knowing that the infant’s dietary needs are met.
Older children • Children need a varying number of calories over the preschool, elementary school and adolescence to continue to grow and develop. • More important than the number of calories is a healthy, balanced diet that provides all of the five major food groups. • A healthy diet not only draws on the major food groups, but also avoids too much sugar and too much fat.
Dramatic changes occur physically in infancy and early childhood. After a period of the body relative dormancy another transformation begins.
Adolescence begins officially with puberty, which refers to the adolescent growth spurt and sexual maturation.
Hello Puberty! • Sexual maturation includes a change in primary sex characteristics, which refers to the organs directly involved in reproduction. • Girls: Ovaries, uterus and vagina • Boys: scrotum, testes and penis
Physical changes in puberty • The development of secondary sex characteristics, which are physical signs of maturity not directly linked to the reproductive organs. • These are the changes the distinguish a man from a woman
You don’t necessarily know at that age, right? Think on your own… What are the common ways to tell the gender of a small child?
This one should have been EASY for you to answer. But why? Puberty produces changes in physical appearance that make it easy to distinguish a boy from a girl- secondary sex characteristics! We’ve all experienced them…what are they?
Secondary Sex Characteristics • Girls- Breast development, widening of the pelvis, Menarche (menstruation), voice changes. • Boys- Spermarche, voice deepens, shoulders broaden, facial hair • The development of facial and body/pubic hair occur for both genders.
This transformation of puberty can lead to awkward social interactions during the initial spurt as girls are often taller and more mature-looking than boys. Girls are particularly likely to be dissatisfied with their appearance and feel awkward or self-conscious
Effects of Puberty • Research has shown that early maturation can be harmful for girls. • Girls who mature early often lack self-confidence, are less popular, are more likely to be depressed and have behavior problems. • These potential problems can be offset by several factors, including a supportive family.