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Fueling H2 City

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  1. Fueling H2 City By: Brad Fairchild, Annan Shang, Eddie Trejo, Kristen Woznick

  2. Graphical Representation (trimetric)

  3. Graphical representation (diametric)

  4. Graphical representation (front)

  5. Graphical representation (left)

  6. Graphical Representation (TOP)

  7. Definition of Needs and Requirements • Objective • Background • Requirements • Considerations • Issues

  8. Objective Change a city’s infrastructure to incorporate 100% Hydrogen and Hydrogen/ compressed natural gas blends (HCNG) from renewable resources to develop a world class, sustainable energy community by developing a fueling station

  9. Background Air Products – global provider of atmospheric, process and specialty gases, performance materials, equipment and services Committed to safety and environment by being a leader in hydrogen production and distribution Build relationships with customers through understanding, integrity, and passion Annual revenues: $8.3 billion while operating in 30 countries Currently involved in 110 fueling projects in 18 countries Paving the way for a future hydrogen economy

  10. Requirements: specifics Produce Hydrogen at 350 and 700 BAR Pressure Suitable for passenger cars and commercial vehicles HCNG contains 30% Hydrogen at 250 Bar in order to accommodate city public transportation vehicles and commercial vehicles Provide enough hydrogen through a capable fueling station that is run to capacity to replace all the gas/ diesel fuel with minimum opportunity costs Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and HCNG fueled vehicles are readily available

  11. Requirements: Considerations • City • Population • Renewable resources • Fuel dispensing method • Storage system • Fueling station amenities • Supply method • Gas • Liquid • Pipeline supply • On site production

  12. Requirements: Issues • Safety • Environmental Impact • Shift to new forms of energy that are sustainable, pollution free and domestically produced • Better environment, economic growth, and improved national security • Economic Viability • Geographic Location

  13. Proposals Option 1: Brad Option 2: Annan Option 3: Eddie Option 4: Kristen

  14. Option 1: Brad • Location: Mineola, Texas • Suburban area • 20 minutes outside of Dallas, Texas • Developed and located just outside the city so that a car can travel to and from the city on one tank of gas • Source of H2/ HCNG: Nuclear Reactor* • thermochemical processes is $1.30 per kg of H2 • Electrolysis is $3.00 per kg H2 • cost of 6 cents per kWh. • Storage of H2/ HCNG: on site and cooled to liquid form • Compressed by small reformers in building and pushed into cylinders • Above ground in giant thermos • No required electricity • Stored indefinitely • Liquid hydrogen tank • Improves energy density • Able to store more hydrogen than compressed gas tank • Issue: hydrogen boiling off, energy for liquefaction, volume, weight, and tank cost

  15. Option 1: Brad • Fuel Dispensing Method • Gasoline dispensing with pump • Take several minutes • Power for operations • Nuclear power plant power/ electricity to station • Impact in location/ area • Nuclear reactor take up large location in town • unappealing • Safety Issues: • Nuclear waste • Pollution/ excess in air • Radiation exposure

  16. Option 2: Annan • Location: Dearborn, Michigan • Rouge river runs through the city • Hydrogen station located close by • Major employers • Auto suppliers • Transport Hydrogen by trucks provided by nearby auto suppliers • University of Michigan – Dearborn and Henry Ford community college • Recruit employees from nearby colleges and universities • Home of Ford Motor Company • Controls many properties owned by Ford including sales and leasing to unrelated busineses • Population=98,153 • 26 miles from Detroit

  17. Option 2: Annan • Source of H2/ HCNG: lab hydrogen station • Contains liquid H2 and liquid to compress to H2 leaving the options open or interchangeable for storage • Choose liquid – carry more when liquefied • Storage of H2/ HCNG: liquid • Fuel Dispensing Method • Power for operations: Water power using nearby river • Impact in location/ area • Adjusts to area well due to the surrounding motor companies • Downside: location is 26 miles from Detroit meaning low traffic • Leased by Ford Motor Company • Many properties owned by Ford • Safety Issues • Where it is placed and what its run with, do not know how it is not safe enough

  18. Option 3: Eddie • Location: Zurich, Switzerland • Pipelines already in place • Government initiative pushing for clean energy by 2012 • Source of H2/ HCNG: Photoelectrical • Storage of H2/ HCNG: Gas • Liquid conversion energy and cost expensive • Fuel Dispensing Method • Nozzle dispenser* • Power for operations: Hydroelectric • Already in place in Zurich • Use of water to power operations • Impact in location/ area • Produce a complete green energy zone with the aid of the government • Safety Issues: none

  19. Option 4: Kristen • Location: Los Angeles, California • Source of H2/ HCNG: Electrolysis provided with electricity from solar panel • Separates hydrogen and oxygen from water by providing electric current – produced by renewable power • 2 electrodes connected to power source • Oxygen released into air • Hydrogen gas is collected and stored • Voltage is ineeficient, cost =gains • Use mixed proton-electron conducting membrane while water is decomposed on feed surface • H is ionized or loses electrons • On permeate side combine into hydrogen gas molecules

  20. Option 4: kristen • Storage of H2/ HCNG: On site Production • Electrolyzer – refrigerator attached to water line • Located in forecourt or canopy • Solar panels connected to grid – • day=electricity – • Night=used by electrolyzer for hydrogen production\ • 50 vehicles per day • Fuel Dispensing Method • Nozzle dispenser* • Power for operations: Solar Panel* • Impact in location/ area • Do not produce toxic or greenhouse gas emissions • Do not burn fossil fuels • Can be recycled inexpensively • Expand transit program • New vehicle options • Jobs and business opportunities • Lay foundation for new commercial market • Fuel for non vehicle operations • Safety issues • Wind resistance • Fewer power-generating technologies have as little environmental impact as solar panels • Hazards associate with life cycles of voltaic cells • Chemicals in manufacturing process

  21. Determining Weight Factors

  22. Weighted Selection Matrix

  23. Final Concept Proposal Location: Los Angeles, California Sources: Nuclear Reactor Storage: Delivered as gas Dispensing of fuel: Nozzle Dispenser Power for operation: solar panel Impact on location Safety

  24. Functional Process Diagram Safety needs Safe and incident free workforce and work place Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Adequate supply of Hydrogen, at least cost & impact on the environment Distribution of Hydrogen to Fueling Station Hydrogen fuel supply Delivery of fuel to application Amenities Consumer Appeal Environment Compliance at levels lower than existing emission standards

  25. Functional Process Diagram Safety and emergency response training Equipment and operational reviews On site safety audits Safe and incident free workforce and work place Safety needs Operating procedure Meet emission standard Hydrogen Production Nuclear reactor electrolysis H20H+ and OH- Hydrogen Adequate supply of Hydrogen, at least cost & impact on the environment Distribution of Hydrogen to Fueling Station storage Delivered as gas Tube trailer Packed into cylinders Compressed Delivery of fuel to application Dispensed at 250-350 Bar High Pressure storage (7000 psi) Hydrogen fuel supply Compressor Vaporizer Consumer Appeal Amenities Compliance at levels lower than existing emission standards Environment Permits Codes and Standards

  26. Final Solution • Location of Fueling Station: Los Angeles, California • Largest producer of Hydrogen • Currently state has 6 Hydrogen fuel stations open to the public • 46 stations by 2014 • 10/15 most populated U.S. cities are located in CA • #1 being Los Angeles • Highest U.S. average gas prices among 50 states • Least expensive price in northern CA: Modesto at $3.84 • Highest average price in CA: Eureka at $4.06 • Capabiltity to meet California’s 2007 heavy duty emissions standard with less than 0.2 g horsepower hour • Uses 30% Hydrogen, 70% compressed natural gas • Vehicles run with reduced carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbon emissions

  27. Final Solution: Source of H2/ HCNG • Nuclear Reactor • thermochemical processes is $1.30 per kg of H2 • Electrolysis is $3.00 per kg H2 • cost of 6 cents per kWh • Reactor solely devoted to hydrogen production • Electricity generation is by renewable resources instead • Pebble Bed Modular Reactor

  28. Pebble Bed Modular Reactor • Currently, • Small “pebbles” of low-enriched uranium (few percent) are coated with ceramics and graphite • Pressed into balls, size of an orange • ½ million pebbles placed into reactor core • Helium gas = coolant  does not absorb neutrons to produce radioactive products but carries away heat generated by nuclear fission • Pebbles heat helium which drives turbine connected to a generator • Control rods – composed of cadmium or boron, control the process by absorbing neutrons to keep it self sustaining and protects the process from overheating

  29. Pebble bed modular reactor • Does not need to be shut down to add more fuel • Simply add more pebbles to the top of the pile • Decreased efficiency • Capture neutrons as fission products accumulates • Problems • Transport of nuclear waste on nation’s roads • Disposal of radioactive wastes • Formation of glass, ceramic, or synthetic rock from wastes • Placed in high resistant containers and buried underground • Radioactive fuel rods removed – stored for several months in pools at reactor sites • Allow decay of radioactive nuclei • 20 half lives are necessary to allow radioactively levels to decrease levels of radioactivity to be acceptable for biological exposure

  30. Pebble Bed Modular Reactor • In Future, • High temperature gas to crack steam to produce hydrogen • Water is the coolant • H20H+ and OH- • Reaction between zirconium and the oxygen in water molecule takes place at high temperatures • Releases hydrogen at around 1200 degrees Fahrenheit • fuel bundles uncovered • the uranium pellets are clad in a zirconium alloy • melting

  31. Final Solution: storage of H2/ HCNG • compressed hydrogen gas tanks • When produced, compressed and packaged into cylinders • Tube trailer leaves tubes or trailer in designated area on site • Fed to pipes connected to dispenser • Less equipment • Can store less hydrogen

  32. Final solution: dispensing of fuel • Customer turns on hydrogen dispenser • Fuel flows from tank through pipes (above or below ground) • Passes through silver heat exchangers to warm temperature • If dispensed at 35MPa, the fuel goes directly into vehicle • If dispensed at 70MPa, hydrogen flows to another compressor where it is cooled and compressed • Different pressures require different nozzles for the Hydrogen fuel • Requires 3-5 minutes for 350 BAR or 7-10 minutes for 700 BAR to fill a car’s tank

  33. Compressed Hydrogen Gas Tank Volumetric capacity: 0.030 kg/L for 10,000 psi gas tanks Stored at higher pressures Carbon fiber reinforced 5000 psi-10,000 psi compressed hydrogen gas tanks Inner liner = high molecular weight polymer  hydrogen gas permeation barrier Shell=carbon fiber epoxy resin  gas pressure load bearing component Outer shell=impact and damage resistance Located in the tank – temperature sensor and pressure regulator As tank temperature decreases, gas tank volumetric capacity increases

  34. Final Solution: Power for Operation • Power for station operations (not including nuclear reactor): solar power • Solar panels (photovoltaic cells)use renewable sun energy • Clean and environmentally sound • Convert photons to electricity through photovoltaic effect • utilize a large-area p-n junction diode • the p-n junction diodes convert the energy from sunlight into usable electrical energy • Striking photons produce energy that knocks electrons out of their orbit and they are released • electric fields in solar cells pull free electrons in a directional current • metal contacts in solar cell produce electricity • Several panels • Use crystalline silicon cells or thin film cells connected to copper or solver wire in a parallel series • Place in direct sunlight • Dynamic mounts that follow position of the sun in the sky • Average price = $4.30 per watt • Efficiency: convert 20% of captured sunlight

  35. Impact on Location • Mining of uranium • Emit less radiation to surrounding areas than coal power plants • Radioactive waste • Pollution in air • Radiation exposure • Employment opportunities to surrounding areas • Burden to area • New roads, highways, etc…

  36. Safety • Flammability of hydrogen • Oxygen must be present • Radioactive waste • Federal government will not allow waste to be refurbished • Not allowed to be used again in nuclear reactor like France • Maintain own waste

  37. Sources http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-13746_7-10204075-48.html http://gasbuddy.com/gb_gastemperaturemap.aspx http://www.nirs.org/factsheets/hydrogenbynuclear.pdf http://beniciaherald.wordpress.com/2011/03/08/aaa-california-has-nations-highest-gas-prices/ Chemistry: The Central Science, 11th edition, Pearson Education, Incorporated, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2009 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/storage/hydrogen_storage.html?m=1& http://www.solarpanelinfo.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel http://www.gizmag.com/honda-solar-powered-ev-charging-station/17326/ http://www.deskeng.com/articles/aaantj.htm http://www.3dcontentcentral.com/search.aspx?arg=pan&keywordsnavigator=Household&contentsourcefilter=!Supplier%7CUserSupplied%20(SupplierAgent)%7CUser&tagsnavigator=panel http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/mvigeant/univ_270_03/john/sources.htm http://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/hydrogen-electrolysis.htm http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/production/natural_gas.html?m=1& http://www.fuelcellpartnership.org/hydrogen-station-configuration http://cafcp.org/sites/files/FountainValleyDiagram(out)_.jpg http://www.cityofdearborn/org/work/where-we-work http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dearborn._Michigan http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/h2fuelingstations.pdf