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Russian Revolution. Ch. 14 Sec. 1. Russia. Czar Alexander III (r. 1881-1894). He deprived ethnic groups in Russian empire of their basic rights. Ruled as an autocrat (total control of Russia under him) Made all Russian colonies adopt Russian ways, language, culture, traditions, religion.

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russian revolution

Russian Revolution

Ch. 14 Sec. 1

czar alexander iii r 1881 18941
He deprived ethnic groups in Russian empire of their basic rights

Ruled as an autocrat (total control of Russia under him)

Made all Russian colonies adopt Russian ways, language, culture, traditions,


Czar Alexander III (r. 1881-1894)
czar alexander iii persecutes jews
Czar Alexander III Persecutes Jews
  • forbade Jews from owning land in Russia
  • forbade Jews from living in Russian communities
  • encouraged Russians to persecute Jews
  • Russian Universities set quotas for Jewish students
pogroms under czar alexander iii
Pogroms Under Czar Alexander III
  • organized violence against Jews in Russia
  • broke out through out Russia
  • Police stood by as Russian citizens destroyed Jewish homes stores synagogues
czar nicholas ii r 1894 1917
Czar Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917)
  • son of Czar Alexander III
  • Used same autocratic totalitarian policies as Czar as his father
  • Nicholas refused to surrender any of his power
revolutionary movement grows
Revolutionary Movement Grows
  • Revolution gains steam during Nicholas II reign
  • 1902 new political parties emerge in Russia
  • Constitutional Democratic Party
  • Bourgeoisie (merchant middle class)
  • Liberals
  • wanted a



  • Social Revolution Party
  • wanted equal land distribution for all peasants
  • wanted to increase the power of peasants to equal the power of land owners
  • Social Democrats
  • followed teachings of Karl Marx:19th century radical political philosopher
  • concentrated in

urban areas

1904 social democrats split into 2 warring factions
Bolsheviks (majority) Reds (more powerful)

wanted a new government with central authority

wanted to push peasants to war against the Czar’s government

Mensheviks (minority) Whites (less people agreed)

more moderate

wanted new government with less control over people

1904 Social Democrats Split into 2 Warring Factions:
russo japanese war 19041
Russo-Japanese War 1904
  • 1880’s on Japan/Russia competing for lands in Asia
    • both nations were imperialists
russo japanese war 19042
Russo-Japanese War 1904
  • both wanted Korea and Manchuria
  • Japan


Russia in


February 1904

  • Japan won the war and won control of Manchuria
  • The defeat demoralized/angered Russian people
  • many revolts/strikes against the Russian government in response
bloody sunday january 22 19051
Bloody Sunday January 22, 1905
  • 200,000 unarmed Russian peasants marched on Czar Nicholas II palace in St. Petersburg
  • protesting to get better working conditions, more personal freedom, elected national legislature
  • Czar was not home but ordered his troops to fire on the crowd
  • 1,000 Russian peasants killed
bloody sunday leads to more strikes across russia
Bloody Sunday leads to more strikes across Russia
  • workers strike in Russia
  • all business stops through out Russia
  • October 1905 Czar allows for creation of national parliament: Duma
  • Czar agrees to pass no laws with out Duma’s approval
  • Czar dissolves parliament after 10 weeks
reasons revolution of 1905 failed
Reasons Revolution of 1905 failed:
  • Czar Nicholas II had military on his side
  • Revolutionary parties were split
  • poorest workers felt left out: felt unrepresented by any party
world war i
World War I
  • Czar Nicholas II dragged Russia into the war
  • by the end of 1914: 4 million Russian soldiers killed or captured
  • Russians soldiers sent to fight with out adequate supplies or food
  • Czar Nicholas II forced Russians to fight WWI: they didn’t want to
called himself a holy medicine man

Befriended Czarina Alexandra while Czar Nicholas II was away fighting WWI

convinced Czarina to put him in charge of key political decisions

spread corruption through out royal court:

appointed his buddies; made decisions for personal gain: further angered Russian people

1916 group of nobles murdered Rasputin: but he damaged credibility of Russian ruling family with Russian people

red riots march 1917
Red Riots March 1917
  • Russian Revolution begins
  • women riot because they have no food: their husbands are off to war or dead already
  • 200,000 women factory workers swarm the streets in Petrograd, Russia
  • Few soldiers obey Czar’s orders to shoot them
red riots march 19171
Red Riots March 1917
  • soldiers switch sides and join the rioters
  • soldiers began firing at their commanding officers
  • Czar abdicates (leaves) the throne: he and his family flea to Siberia (east Russia)
  • 1918: Czar and his family executed by Bolsheviks
provisional government
Provisional Government
  • Alexander Kerensky
  • leader of the Provisional Government
  • was a moderate socialist
  • new government of moderates (Mensheviks) set up
  • each region of Russia had a council (Soviet) of local leaders to rule it
provisional government lasts only 8 months
Provisional Government lasts only 8 months
  • it kept Russia in World War I and couldn’t sustain war effort
  • couldn’t stop inflation (money becomes less valuable)
  • couldn’t raise Russian morale
october revolution
October Revolution
  • November 7, 1917: Bolsheviks seize powerRussian calendar one month behind ours
  • Bolsheviks take control of capital: Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
  • Bolsheviks take the capital but did not control the whole country
  • Bolsheviks arrest members of provisional government
vladimir lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks

Led Bolsheviks in a Civil War against the Mensheviks

Becomes leader of Soviet Union (Communist Russia)

Vladimir Lenin
civil war 1917 1921
Civil War 1917-1921
  • Bolsheviks (Reds) vs. Mensheviks (Whites)
  • Reds were the radical communists
  • Whites were the moderate socialists
  • Mensheviks (Whites) had the support

of G.B./France

Reds were led by Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin



Bolsheviks (Reds) win: seize total control of Russia

vladimir lenin 1870 1924
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
  • Was a radical early on: brother executed for treason 1887
  • Went to prison 1896 for conspiring against the Czar
  • Published a Marxist newspaper: The Spark
vladimir lenin 1870 19241
Revamped Marxism to make it logical for Russia

He saw Mensheviks as too moderate: not enough difference with the old Czarist government

Had the support of the common people: great speaker; great personality: people liked him

persecuted anyone who did not support the Revolution

Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
red terror
Red Terror
  • Introduced by Lenin
  • Terminated opposition (executed/exiled) to the Revolution
  • Eliminated the Bourgeoisie as a class through exile and execution
  • Created Cheka: Secret Police to monitor the citizens
war communism
War Communism
  • Lenin’s first economic system as dictator of Russia
  • peasants had to turn over all surplus goods/foods to the government
  • All privately owned business were made publicly owned
  • Many people start to think the Revolution abandoned them
  • Civil War over but Russia in economic/social turmoil in 1921
new economic policy nep 1921 1928
New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921-1928
  • Lenin realized he had to make some changes
  • He temporarily retreated Russia away from Communism
  • Allows private ownership of business
  • Allows peasants to keep their surplus food in exchange for taxes
  • Allowed peasants to hire themselves out to farmers for wages
new economic policy nep 1921 19281
● Devalued Russian money to stop inflation

Inflation: more money is printed than there should be, which makes currency less valuable

Implemented new fairer legal codes

NEP was very successful!!!

peasants felt better about the Revolution; it allowed for economic/social stability in Russia

New Economic Policy (NEP) 1921-1928
union of soviet socialist republics ussr1
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • formed end of 1922 (formerly Russia)
  • named in honor of the councils that helped launch Russian Revolution (Soviets)
  • constitution passed 1924
  • Communist Party held all the power: no democracy
  • USSR recovers
  • By 1928 farms/factories produced as much as before World War I
1924 lenin dies
1924 Lenin dies
  • died of a series of strokes
  • big power struggle after his death
  • Lenin wanted Leon Trotsky to be his successor
  • Joseph Stalin seizes total power of USSR in 1928
joseph stalin
he made USSR a totalitarian/terror state (ruled 1928-1953)

exiled/executed enemies and threats to his power: including Trotsky

Joseph Stalin
lenin s legacy
Lenin’s Legacy

● he thought revolution would start with poorer nations and domino to richer nations all over the world

  • He believed the peasants should unite and rule the world together
  • Believed Imperialism/Capitalism were ultimate evils
  • believed Western European nations were like mafias that caused World War I
  • He believed the real war should be colonies vs. imperialists