Nonfinite Verbs (非谓语动词)
谓语：说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。它有人称、数、时态和语态的变化。谓语：说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。它有人称、数、时态和语态的变化。 e.g. He works. He takes care of the baby. He will go to Shanghai. He didn’t go to Shanghai. He has gone to Shanghai. You are students. You look smart. 单谓语或动词短语 情态动词/助动词+ v. 系动词+表语
非谓语：主要包括不定式（to do），ving形式以及过去分词（done）。无人称，数的变化，不单独作谓语，但保留动词特点，可以有宾语或状语。 e.g. He works. He wants to work here. He is working now. He has done his work. You are students, so you don’t work in the factory. Being students, you don’t work in the factory.
V.-ing 形式 不定式 非谓语动词 过去分词 高考题 巩固 题1 巩固 题2
Revision: The function of V-ing 1.Learning a foreign language is very useful. 2.I enjoy learning English. 3.We can learn a lot about what a person is thinking by watching his or her body language. 4. The music sounds exciting. 5. My job is teaching. 6. There is a swimming pool in our school. 7.The boy standing there is a classmate of mine. 8.W watch the children diving into the water from the top board. 9.Hearing a sound ,the baby stopped crying.(adverbial) ( subject) (object) (object) (predicative) (predicative) (attribute) (attribute) (object complement)
V-ing as Adverbial 1.Hearing a sound ,the baby stopped crying. 2.He cut off the electricity,preventing an accident. 3.Having been told her daughter was sick, she hurried to the school to take her home. 4.Having cut off the electricity,he prevented an accident. 5.Having lived in the country for many years, she knows how to grow vegetables. 6.Not having received any news from home for a long time,she is becoming more and more homesick. (not)V-ing (not)having done (not)having been done V-ing 的形式
Revision （一）动词不定式 to do 作用 （The function of “to do”） 1. What does it mean to be a scientist?( subject) 2.Nothing in life is to be feared(predicative) 3. People who listen to Hawking’s lectures sometimes find it difficult to understand him.(object) 4.The doctor told him that he might not have more than twelve months to live.(attribute) 5. He travelled around the world to give lectures.(adverbial) 6. He rushed to school only to find there was nobody there.(adverbial) 7.The teacher asked us to write a composition about a famous scientist.(object complement) 7. Nor did he let the disease stophim from living…(object compement)
（二）不定式的形式、时态与语态 • John stepped forward so as to be introduced to the visitors. • 2. Anne stepped forward so as to introduce the visitors to us. • 3. They seem to have met each other before.Didn’t you notice that. • 4. They seem to know each other. • 5. When mother came into my room, I pretended to be reading a letter. • 6. I’ll write down your name and address so as not to forget them. (not) to do (not) to be done (not) to have (been)done (not) to be doing 小结
过去分词 done 1. 形式与含义 若是及物动词（vt ）则表示被动；动作已经完成（即先于谓语动词） 若是不及物动词（vi）则只表示完成。 如：a broken glass=a glass which has been broken a fallentree=a tree which has fallen (down)
2. 成分 1) 作表语 eg She is interested in the job. \ All the audiences are moved. 2) 作定语 eg.Tigers and lions are animals which are endangered. Tigers and lions are endangered animals. All the people who are invited to the meeting are VIP. All the people invited to the meeting are VIP. We can see a lot of leaves which have fallen on the ground. We can see a lot of fallen leaves on the ground.
3）作宾补 eg Speak louder so that you can make yourself heard. We have our classroom cleaned every day. 4) 作状语 eg. If it is seen from the top of the mountain, the village looks very small. Seen from the top of the mountain, the village looks very small. （比较：When we saw from the top of the mountain,we found the viilage very small. = Seeing from the top of the mountain, we found the village very small.） eg. The teacher entered the room and he was followed by some students. The teacher entered the room,followed by some students.
判断下列句子中过去分词（done）的成分： 1.Folded in his pocket, the letter wasn’t found until twenty years later. 2. No matter how hard he tried, he couldn’t make himself believed. 3.We can see excited expression on her face. 3. When heated, ice will be changed into water. 4. She had her bike repaired yesterday. 5. We were all inspired by her inspiring speech. 6. Given an apple, the child stopped crying. 7. The boy named Tom is an orphan. adverbial Object complement attribute adverbial Object complement predicative adverbial attribute
独立主格结构。 例4 As there was nobody， he had to go alone. There ______ nobody, he had to go alone. If time permits, I will go to see you. Time________, I will go to see you. As the worked had been finished, he went to bed. The work_______,he went to bed. being permitting finished 当存在不同主语时，可以用Ving形式的独立主格结构。
不定式 不定式的作用 例1. ___ makes me happy to find the key. A. That B. It C. What D. Whether B 解析：不定式做主语，常用“it”作为形式主语放于句首，常见句型有it is adj. (for sb.) to do sth. 但是强调当形容词与人的品性有关是 改 for 为 of. e.g. It is nice of you to say so. It 也可充当形式宾语使用。
[例2] NMET 2000 第19题 I’ve work with children before, so I know what ___ in my job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects 不定式 不定式的作用 B 解析：该题考查疑问+不定式在句中做宾语的用法。英语中有一些动词 后可以跟一个疑问词的不定式做宾语，如： tell, discuss, know, show, learn, decide, wonder, explain…
不定式 不定式的作用 例3: You are the third one _______ the room. A. to enter B. entering C. entered A 解析：不定式做定语时为后置定语，常常修饰代词anything/something/noting，名词 way/chance/ opportunity等 或由序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词。 注意：I need a pen to write with.(不及物动词要加介词)
[例4] NMET 1999 第21题 The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make. 不定式 不定式的作用 B 解析：因为主语是the purpose，在（purpose, wish, promise, plan）后常跟不定式，故表语要用不定式，to不能省略，因此构成the purpose is to…not to…do 句型，故选B 。
不定式 不定式的作用 例5: You are not allowed _____ the books out. A. taking B. to taken C. take D. to take D 解析：allow 的用法可见allow sb. to do和 allow doing sth. 当被改为被动态时，为sb. be allowed to do. 在大多数的动词可接不定式短语做宾补，只有少数动词（五个看see,watch,notice, observe,look at；三使役make,let, have;二听listen to,hear等）须接不带to 的不定式做宾补,但变为被动态后to不可省略。
不定式 不定式的作用 A 例6：I got up early to catch the bus. He went out never to return. He is too young to go to school. I am happy to meet you. B B C A. Adverbial of purpose B. Adverbial of result C. Adverbial of reason
[例7] NMET 1997第12题 I would love _____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. having gone C. going D. to have gone 不定式 不定式的时态和语态 D 解析：该题考查动词不定式做宾语的 用法。would love(like) to 是固定搭配，因此B、C、不合题意。Would love +不定式一般式，表示“想，希望”，而接不定式完成式则表示“原本希望而未曾实现”的意思。
[例8] NMET 2002 第14题 Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains _______ whether they will enjoy it. (2002) A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen B 解析：不定式的语态取决于它和主语以及被它修饰的词的逻辑关系,被动关系用被动. 例如：It was the first such project to be designed by Chinese engineers. The question to be discussed at the next meeting will be rather difficult.
[例9] NMET 1996年 The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eat 不定式 不定式的否定形式 C 解析：该题考查不定式的否定式作主补。要注意warn后跟词方式， ①warn sb. not to do sth. ②warn sb. against doing sth. 该题应该用①结构另外，not 应放在to之前。
[例 ] NMET1998 European football is played in 80 countries, ___ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make V.-ing 形式 v.-ing 形式主要考查其在句子中作状语和定语的用法 A Making it the popular sport in the world为现在分词短语作结果状语，这类分词短语常放在句子的后面,ing表示顺其自然，不定式表示突然，出乎意料。如： 解析 His parents died, leaving him an orphan. He rushed to the post office only to find it was closed
V.-ing 形式 例2 a sleeping baby a sleeping bag Ving 做定语时可以用来修饰名词的状态，用途，特点等。 boiling water boiled water an exciting game an excited man ving做定语时可以强调动作的进行以及主动的关系，反之则用过去分词
V.-ing 形式 例3. I forgot _____ my name when I finished ____ the composition. A. to sign, to writing B. to sign, writing C. signing, writing B 有些动词后接to do为宾语，而有些则接ving，比如finish, suggest, mind, practise等，但要注意一下动词 forget，remember, regret, try，mean等既可以加to do也可加doing，但是意义不同。
[例1] NMET1996第23题 _____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 过去分词 过去分词主要考查其在句中作状语、定语、表语和补语的用法。 1.作状语 C 解析：1.该题考查过去分词作状语的用法。动词-ing或过去分词作状语，其逻辑主语应是主语。 2.“陷入深思”有两种表达法， A.Lose oneself in thought B.be lost in thought,按句子提供的语境可用结构B.（比较：Losing himself in thought,he almost ran…）
[例2] NMET1997第17题 The Olympic Games,___ in 776 B.C，did not include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing 过去分词 2.作定语 A ①过去 分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系且过去分词表示的动作以完成。 ② 现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生，与修饰词是主谓关系。 ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 所以A是正确的。First played in 776B.C.=which was first played in 776 B.C. 解析
[例3] NMET1998第23题 Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 过去分词 3.作表语 C 解析：该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。此题被动结构作表语。类似的有：get burnt, get hurt , get wounded.
[例4] NMET2000第22题 The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ___ the next year. A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 过去分词 4.作补语 C 该题考查过去分词作宾语补足语的用法。the plan 与carry out 的关系是被动关系。see sth.done 这结构常见的还有watch(notice, observe,have 和make)sth. done. 解析
历年高考题 A 1. Friendship is like money：easier made than ______ (‘03上海春) A．kept B．to be kept C．keeping D．being kept 2. ____ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement． A．The president will attend B．The president to attend (‘03上海春) C．The president attended D．The president's attending D A 3. Unless ___ to speak，you should remain silent at the conference． A．invited B．inviting C．being invited D．having invited (‘03上春) 4. She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role ______ in making the earth a better place to live． (‘03上海春) A．to have played B．to play C．to be played D．to be playing B
5. How about the two of us ____ a walk down the garden? (MET93 17) A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking 6. ____ down the radio ---- the baby’s asleep in the next room. (MET93 24) A. Turning B. To turn C. Turned D. Turn 7. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. (MET93 34) A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented 8. ---I must apologize for ____ ahead of time. ---That’s all right. (MET94 21) A. letting you not know B. not letting you know C. letting you know not D. letting not you know 9. Rather than ___ on a crowded bus, he always prefers ____ a bicycle. (NMET94 22) A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding
10. The missing boys were last seen ____ near the river.(NMET94 25) A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play 11. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. (NMET94 34) A.having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 12. ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. ---Well, now I regret ____ that. (NMET95 26) A. to do b. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 13. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him_____. (NMET95 35) A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to 14. ---What do you think made Mary so upset? ---____ her new bicycle. (97上海 13) A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing
15. She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake. (97 上海12) A. to clean B. cleaning C. cleaned D. being cleaned 16. She looks forward every spring to _____ the flower-lined garden. (95 上海20) A. visit B. paying a visit C. walk in D. walking in 17. While shopping, people sometime can’t help ____ into buying something they don’t really need. (96上海14) A.to pursue B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 18. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. (NMET99 21) A.not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make 19. A computer does only what thinking people _____. (99上海19) A. have it do B. have it done C. have done it D. having it done 20. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” (NMET99 25) A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading
巩固练习 C 1.He gave us some advice on how____ English. A.learning B. learned C. to learn D. learn D 2. It ’s a pay day，and they are waiting____. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to be paid 3. --- A letter may be too slow. ---- Why not ____ a telegram. A.try sending B.try to send C.to try sending D.trying to send A B 4.Our father often told us in the past that _____is believing. A.to see B.seeing C.see D.to be seen A 5.Mrs.Smith warned her husband_____after drinking again and again. A.never to drive B.to never drive C.never driving D.never drive D 6. To master a foreign language,______. A. a lot of practice is needed B. it needs a lot of practice C. practice is in need of D. one needs a lot of practice 20. The library needs ______,but it’ll have to wait until Sunday. A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned