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DETERMINATION OF FREE FORMALDEHYDE ON TEXTILE SUBSTRATE BY HPLC. Bojana VON C INA U niversity of Maribor, Textile Department Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia . Formaldehyde is built in the atmosphere thought photochemical processes of hydrocarbons

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determination of free formaldehyde on textile substrate by hplc
DETERMINATION OF FREE FORMALDEHYDE ON TEXTILE SUBSTRATE BY HPLC

Bojana VONCINA

University of Maribor, Textile Department

Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide2
Formaldehyde is built in the atmosphere thought photochemical processes of hydrocarbons
  • It is produced during the uncompleted combustion of wood, oil, gas, tobacco

Source of formaldehyde:

- Automobiles and airplanes 70-80%

- Heating and incineration 13-15%

- Formaldehyde in chem. prod. 1%

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide3
Formaldehyde is found in human body as a building blocks for amino acids and proteins

Blood 2-3 mg/kg

Apple 17-22 mg/kg

Tomatoes 6-7 mg/kg

Wood 4-18 mg/kg

  • Formaldehyde is often used as a building block for a number of important chemical products, intermediates and consumer goods: - urea-formaldehyde resins (25%),

- phenol- formaldehyde resins (20%),

- plastics (15%),

- intermediates (22%).

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide4
Toxicity Data

Formaldehyde is readily absorbed through skin and is toxic by

inhalation

It is considered toxic, carcinogen, mutagen, corrosive

Health Effects:

Inhalation:formaldehide is extremely destructive to tissue of the mucous membranes and that of the upper respiratory tract. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm and inflammation.

Eyes/Skin: extremely destructive to the tissue of the eyes and skin. Can cause allergic skin reactions

Ingestion: Can cause gastrointestinal disturbances. May alter genetic material. This is considered a carcinogen.

Target Organs: eyes, kidneys, liver, heart, potential cancer agent, testis, ovaries

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide5

The most effective crosslinking reagents for durable press finishing of cellulose fibers are formaldehyde adducts of urea which release formaldehyde during the production and wearing of in such way treated clothesFormaldehyde durable press finishers are applied to the textile substrate mainly in the form of N-methylol and N-alkoxymethyl compounds

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

release of formaldehyde from the textile substrate can be measured by

Release of formaldehyde from the textile substrate can be measured by:

STANDARD TEST METHODS

Japan Law 112 (EN ISO 14184-1)

AATCC-112

The formaldehyde content below 20 mg/kg can not be shown to be caused by the formaldehyde which was released by the crosslinking reagent.

ALTERNATIVE TEST METHODS

edana recommended test method using HPLC

HPLC

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide7

EN ISO 14184-1 standard test methodStandard solutions of formaldehyde with concentration levels of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 3.0, 6.0, 15.0 and 30.0 mg/L in the 3,5, - diacetyl –1,4-dihydrolutidin forms were prepared. The formaldehyde derivative solutions wereprepared in water and in matrix (extract from untreated cotton fibers). Six replicates of each concentration level were preparedFrom the textile substrateformaldehyde was extracted with water at 40C, filtered and then converted by using acetyl-acetone reagent to yellow colored compound

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

v alidation of absorbance measurements on uv vis
Validation of absorbance measurements on UV/Vis
  • With Grubbs and Beck statistical test were shown that there were no aberrant values
  • An F – test was applied to check heteroscedasticity: standard deviation increase with the concentration
  • Correlation coefficient for standard water and matrix solutions was greater than 0.99
  • Quality coefficient (QC) was lower than permitted 5%
  • Anova test shows that the experimental error was smaller than lack of fit (LOF) for the linear calibration curve
  • Precision of standard water and matrix solutions was better than 10%
  • The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.628 mg/l
  • The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.197 mg/l
  • The amount of formaldehyde extracted for each sample can be calculated by:

Konc (x) = 7,493 ABS - 0,06356

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

free formaldehyde measured by hplc
Free formaldehyde measured by HPLC
  • Standard water and matrix solutions of formaldehyde with concentrations levels 0.075, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 3.0, 6.0, 15.0 and 30.0 mg/L in the 3,5, - diacetyl –1,4-dihydrolutidin forms were prepared
  • Formaldehyde was extracted fromtextile substrate with water at 40C, filtered and then converted by using acetylacetone reagent to yellow colored compound
  • HPLC Varian Prostar 210 pump,
  • Varian Prostar 310 UV/Vis detector (at 410 nm),
  • STAR Chromatography Workstation Varian 4.5,
  • LiChrosorb RP-18 coloum with particle size 7 m,

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

v alidation of the hplc analytical method
Validation of the HPLC analytical method

The optimisation of the

method (the proper column,

mobile phase, solvents,

temperature of the column

etc.) was done.

The concentration of free

formaldehyde in the aqueous

solution was determined using

peak areas from the standard

and sample chromatograms.

  • Mobile phase methanol-water (70:30 v/v).
  • The retantion time for formaldehyde derivative was 2.7 min

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

v alidation of the hplc analytical method11
Validation of the HPLC analytical method
  • With Grubbs and Beck statistical test were shown that there were no aberrant values
  • An F – test was applied to check heteroscedasticity: standard deviation increase with the concentration
  • Correlation coefficient for standard water and matrix solutions was greater than 0.99
  • Quality coefficient (QC) was lower than permitted 5%
  • Anova test shows that the experimental error was smaller than lack of fit (LOF) for the linear calibration curve
  • Precision of standard water and matrix solutions was better than 10%
  • The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.0199 mg/l
  • The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.066 mg/l
  • The amount of formaldehyde extracted for each sample can be calculated by:

Konc (x) = 0,2055 * 10-4 AREA – 0,222

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

The results obtained by the standard test method, Japan

Law112,were compared with the results obtained by HPLC

method whereseparation was performed on RP C 18 column

with water-MeOHas a mobile phase.

  • The limit of detection (LOD) for Japan Law 112 was 0.628 mg/l and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.197 mg/l
  • The limit of detection (LOD) for HPLC method was 0.0199 mg/l and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.066 mg/l
  • Matrix has no influence on the formaldehyde content in the analysed solution.

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide13
FORMALDEHYDE IN MICROENCAPTULATED TEXTILE MATERIALS

Bojana VONCINA

University of Maribor, Textile Department

Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

introduction
Introduction
  • Essential oils from plants Lavandula sp.

(lavender), Rosmarinus sp(rosemary) and

Salvia sp. (sage) are natural fungicide and

antibacterialagents.

  • These oils were microencapsuled in melamine-

formaldehyde microcapsules and crosslinked on

PES nonwoven textile materials.

  • Such textile material is capable of

releasing formaldehyde by decomposition

of microcapsules.

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

s ources of the formaldehyde
Sources of the formaldehyde
  • Textile material (PES)
  • cross-linking reagent
  • microcapsules
  • wall : melamine-formaldehyde resins
  • core : 25 % mixture of essential oils, 75 % solvent

80 % mixture of essential oils, 20 % solvent

      • mixture of essential oils: - lavender 70 %

- rosemary 20 %

- sage 10 %

      • solvent: isopropyl mirystate

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

experimental
Experimental

Release of formaldehyde from the textile substrate was determined by

  • EN ISO 14184-1 (Japan Law 112 method),
  • AATCC test 112-1998,
  • HPLC method, where the separation was achieved with elution using methanol-water, as eluents on a reverse phase column and was monitored at 410 nm with a UV/VIS detector.

In all three methods the extracted

formaldehyde was converted by

using acetylacetone reagent to

yellow coloured compound.

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide17
The formaldehyde contents were determined in

different textile samples:

a)untreated textile material (PES nonwoven)

b) textile material with cross-linking reagent (suspension of latex and acrilate emulsifier)

c)textile material with empty microcapsules,

d)textile material with cross-linkinked empty microcapsules,

e)textile material with cross-linked microcapsules filled with oils (25 % mixture of essential oils, 75 % solvent)

f) textile material with cross-linked microcapsules filled with oils (80 % mixture of essential oils, 20 % solvent)

The formaldehyde contents were determine also in mixture of

oils and pure rosemary and sage oil.

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide18

Results and conclusions

  • Untreated textile material and cross-linking reagent do not contain formaldehyde (7 mg/kg).
  • Microcapsule’s walls contribute to the amount of of the formaldehyde significantly:
    • The average formaldehyde content for the microencaptulated textile material with empty microcapsules is 715 mg/kg and 766 mg/kg for microencaptulated textile material with microcapsules filled with oils (both results are obtained by Japan Law method).
    • Results from AATCC test for the same samples are 5.126 mg/kg and 4.174 mg/kg respectively.
  • .

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide19
Results obtained by HPLC method:
  • indicate that only formaldehyde is released from the textile samples microencaptulated withand without essential oil.
  • Although some amount of formaldehyde is proved in pure essential oils, amount of essential oil which is applied on textile material with microcapsules (160 g/m2) contribute very little to total amount of formaldehyde. This was proved by the measurements of released formaldehyde after the mechanical damages of microcapsules on the textile substrate

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide20

Formaldehyde measurements

in essential oils:

  • Lavender: 0,54 ml/L
  • Rosemary: 0,15 ml/L
  • Sage: 0,32 ml/L

mixture of essential oils :

          • Average amounts of formaldehyde: 0,61 ml/L
          • Results: from 0,18 to 0,75 ml/L (dependent on extraction conditions)

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005

slide21

Conclusion

  • Microcapsule’s wall contributes to the highest degree of the amount of formaldehyde
  • By HPLC it was proven that there are no other aldehydes or ketones present on microcapsulated textile materiale

It was proventhat the amount of formaldehyde in essential oils is negligible

  • Results given by AATCC test 112-1978 method are expected proportionally higher as results given by EN ISO 14184-1 method.
  • After washing of textile substrate, the results are considerable lower
  • The average results obtained from samles prapered in production line are lower. Those samples satisfy eco-labeling system’s requirement.The explanation for this phenomenon is found in different processes of curing and drying.

ITSAPT seminar, Guimaraes, November 2005