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The Mao Years 1949-1976
Contents1. A huge change of the Chinese society under the Communist Party2. Mao's foreign policy 3. The Korean War4. Collectivization of agriculture in China 5. The Anti-Rightist Campaign in 19576. The Great Leap Forward and the People's Commune in 19587. Mao purged Peng Dehuai who criticized his policy in 19598. Economic recovery under the leadership of Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping9. Mao launched the Cultural Revolution in 196610. Mao’s foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and the U.S.
1. The People’s Republic of ChinaOctober 1, 1949 • One of the three world revolutions • The French Revolution • The Russian Revolution • The Chinese Revolution • Radical changes • Social system • Class relations • Property ownership • International relationship
2. Mao's Foreign Policy in 1949 • A policy of non-recognition of any treaties with foreign countries • “To set up a new kitchen” and “to invite guests after a general cleaning” • The Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance
3. The Korean War in 1950 • “In due course Korea shall become free and independent.” the Cairo Conference in 1943 • The Soviet Union entered Manchuria and controlled north Korea in August 1945 • Dean Rusk was asked to find dividing line between the US and Russia in Korea - the 38th parallel as a dividing line based on a National Geographic map, so the US controlled the other side of Korea • Republic of Korea and People’s Democratic Republic of Korea were established respectively in 1947.
Communication between Kim, Stalin and Mao • Kim IL Sung’s initiative to launch the war • First request: visit Moscow from March 4 to April 7, 1949 • Second request: September 3, 1949 • Third request: January 17 and April 1950
Stalin’s Response • First time in April 1949 • Second time September 1949 • Third time in January and April 1950: • Stalin clearly told Kim that he was "ready to help him in this matter.” However, Stalin told Kim that the Soviet Union would not join the fray if the United States participated in this confrontation. Then Stalin asked Kim to consult with Mao, because Mao had "a good understanding of Oriental matters."
Mao’s Response • May 13, 1950 Kim Il Sung visited Beijing to inform Mao that Stalin had granted him permission to invade the South. • Mao decided to hall the discussion immediately and asked Zhou Enlai, to contact Russian Embassy to clarify what Kim said at 11:30 pm. • Pilippov [Stalin] expressed the opinion that, in light of the changed international situation, they agreed with the proposal of the Koreans to move toward reunification. ..the question should be decided finally by the Chinese and Korean comrades together, and in case of disagreement by the Chinese comrades the decision on the question should be postponed. • Mao had no reason to say no any more in this situation, and he ordered the PLA to make preparation to take Taiwan back as soon as possible.
The Rational of Stalin’s New Position:Kill three birds with one stone • Expand the territory of Moscow’s sphere of interest • Win Kim’s loyalty and tie Mao to the side of Moscow • Obtain a unfrozen port in Korea for Moscow’s navy
III-3 The Korean War Broke out • June 25, 1951: North Korean invaded South Korea • June 26: Truman ordered to use US air and naval forces to help S. Korea • June 27: President Truman ordered to block the Taiwan Straits with the Seventh Fleet. • July 30 to 31: Douglas MacArthur visited Taiwan. He gave a speech calling Taiwan an important part in America’s defensive perimeter in the western Pacific. • September 15: The Inchon landing. • September 27: Truman authorized MacArthur to cross the 38 parallel • October 1: South Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel. • October 19: Captured Pyongyang. • China’s boarder cities were bombed frequently when the war broke out.
Washington’s National Security Concerns • Leader of the free world, sphere of interest, credibility and image • Dean Acheson: Sung’s invasion “was an open, undisguised challenge to our internationally accepted position as the protector of South Korea, an area of great importance to the security of American-occupied Japan. To back away from this challenge, in view of our capacity for meeting it, would be highly destructive of the power and prestige of the United States. By prestige I mean the shadow cast by power, which is of great deterrent importance. Therefore, ...we must steel ourselves for the use of force. • Domestic politics • “lost China” criticism • McCarthyism • “chain reaction” theory
Why did Mao decide to enter the warHow could Mao not enter the war? • a buffer area would be gone if Kim’s regime were to be replaced by Rhee’s government. • As Zhou worried, “How many troops are needed to guard the Yalu River of one thousand kilometers? Moreover, they have to wait there year by year without knowing when the enemy may come.” • Stalin urged Kim to set up a government in exile in the Northeast of China and organize guerilla war there. From Mao’s perspective, this would offer an excuse for the United States to invade China to fight Kim’s remnants. Such a Sino-U.S. confrontation would take place in the territory of China. Moreover, the Soviet Union could take advantage of this opportunity to dispatch its troops to the Northeast.
How could Mao not enter the war? • Economically, this region with rich natural resources, advanced industrial equipment, and skilled laborers would be threatened. • From the perspective of domestic security, GMD remnants in Mainland China would be bold enough to make troubles when they had hope of overthrowing this new regime. • Chiang Kai-shek asked to send his troops into the war fighting Mao’s troops • The legitimacy of the CCP was under challenge • Mao’s logic for dealing with the Korean crisis and his will to fight were somewhat comparable to John Kennedy’s logic for coping with the Cuban crisis in 1962.
The Korean War- A Greek Tragedy • The national independence movement after WWII • Defeat of Germany and Japan • Decline of Great Britain, France and Netherland in Asia • America’s anti-colony policy • Independence in India, China and Indonesia • Both Sung and Rhee worked hard to win Korea’s unification and independence • Status quo-the world was divided into two spheres of interest by two superpowers • The Sino-US confrontation in Korea-a Greek tragedy
Consequences of the Korean War • Casualties: 399,000 (or 500,000 to 1 million) • China lost opportunity to take Taiwan back. • Hostility between China & US for two decades • Psychological victory: the first time in a century that China was able to withstand a Western power • The legitimacy of the PRC and the CCP was recognized • Mao established his absolute authority in the CCP
4. Collectivization of agriculture in China • Four stages of collectivization • mutual aid teams (MATs). • the "lower" or "semisocialist" agricultural producers' cooperative (APC). • the “higher" or "socialist" agricultural producers' cooperative (APC). • The People’s Commune
5. The Anti-Rightist Campaign in 1957 • Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization in 1956 • Anti-communist uprisings in Hungary and Poland in 1956 • Hundreds Flowers Campaign • "Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools of thought contend." • The Anti-Rightist Movement • Consequences • 300,000 rightists • Killed democracy in society
6. The Great Leap Forward and the People's Commune in 1958 • Economic development • Catch up the US and surpass the Great Britain • The People’s Commune • Consequences • 30 million people died
7. Mao purged Peng Dehuai in 1959 • Peng Dehuai, Minister of Defense, criticized Mao for his Great Leap Forward Movement • Consequence • Peng lost his position • No more democracy/ criticism against Mao in the Chinese Communist Party any more
8. Economic Recovery under the Leadership of Liu Shaoqi • Liu’s Economic Reform in 1962-1965 • Conflict in policy and ideology with Mao • Consequences
9. The Cultural Revolution from 1966-76 • Goals of the movement • Power struggle • Maintain the spirit of the Chinese Revolution and keep China on the road of socialism • The Red Guards • Political purge and the Revolution Committee replaced existing government administration at all levels • Lin Biao’s death • Mao lost the Mandate of Heaven • The Tiananman Square demonstration in April 1976 • Tiangshan earthquake in 1976 • Mao’s death in 1976
Consequences of the Cultural Revolution • Paralyzed the existing government in all the levels • Staganated economic development • Liu Shaoqi and a group of top leaders either died or lost power • Old tradition lost and no new ideology was established • Whole society was in chaos • The danger of personal cult and life-rule
10. Mao’s Foreign Policy before and during the Cultural Revolution • Split with the Soviet Union • Conflict between Mao and Khrushchev • Anti-revinionist campaign • Border confrontation between Moscow and Beijing • Ally with the United State
Conclusion1. A huge change of the Chinese society under the Communist Party2. Mao's foreign policy 3. The Korean War4. Collectivization of agriculture in China 5. The Anti-Rightist Campaign in 19576. The Great Leap Forward and the People's Commune in 19587. Mao purged Peng Dehuai who criticized his policy in 19598. Economic recovery under the leadership of Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping9. Mao launched the Cultural Revolution in 196610. Mao’s foreign policy to the Soviet Union and the US