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Stockholm Convention on P ersistent Organic Pollutants. UNEP Chemicals, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland. Stockholm Convention on POPs. International action on persistent organic pollutants (= POPs) facilitated by UNEP Chemicals

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Stockholm convention on p ersistent organic pollutants

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

UNEP Chemicals, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland

Stockholm convention on pops
Stockholm Convention on POPs

  • International action on persistent organic pollutants(= POPs) facilitated by UNEP Chemicals

  • 3 years of negotiations between governments, environmental NGOs, industrial NGOs  the POPs Convention was adopted on May 22-23, 2001 in Stockholm, Sweden

  • Until today, 151 countries and the European Commission signed the convention

  • 21 countries ratified or acceded the convention

  • Convention will enter into force when 50 ratifications/accessions obtained (2004 ?)

What are pops
What are POPs ?

  • POPs are organic compounds (= contain carbon) of natural or anthropogenic origin

  • Characterized by physical and chemical properties:- persistent = resist degradation in the environment- semi-volatile = low, but significant vapor pressure leads to distribution into all environmental media- low water solubility and high fat solubility

  •  regional and gloabl distribution via air, water, organisms

  •  long-term exposure to humans and wildlife

  •  bioaccumulation in fatty tissues of living organisms

  •  chronic and acute toxic effects on humans and wildlife

The 12 unep pops
The 12 UNEP POPs

Pesticide Industrial By- Chemical product

Aldrin x

Chlordane x


Dieldrin x

Endrin x

Heptachlor x

Mirex x

Toxaphene x

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) x x

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) x x

Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDD) x

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) x

Objective chemicals
Objective, Chemicals

  • Objective:... of this Convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants.

  • Main provisionsControl measures- on intentionally produced POPs- on unintentionally produced POPs- on stockpiles and wastes

  • General obligations

  • Addition of new chemicals

  • Financial and technical assistance

  • Implementation aspects

Intentionally produced pops
Intentionally Produced POPs

Goal = elimination of production and use of all intentionally produced POPs

  • Chemicals slated for elimination are listed in Annex A:aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, PCB, toxaphene

  • Chemicals slated for restriction are listed in Annex B:- DDT ("acceptable purpose" = production for use in vector control programs- specific exemptions for some parties- other types of exemptions exist – some have conditions, accountability requirements, time limits (extensions)

Pcb article 3 annex a elimination
PCB: Article 3 / Annex A - Elimination

  • PCB Production: NONEPCB Use: Articles in use in accordance with the provisions of Part II of this Annex

  • Each Party shall:a) Prohibit and/or take the legal and administrative measures necessary to eliminateProduction and use, import or export

  • b) shall take measures to ensure that a chemical is imported only for the environmentally sound disposal

Intentionally produced pops pcb
Intentionally Produced POPs - PCB

  • PCB = 3 main goals- cease production of new PCB immediately;- eliminate use of PCB in in-use equipment by 2025;- dispose of PCB as soon as possible but not later than by 2028

  • Parties must report to COP every 5 years on progress

  • COP will review progress on 2025 and 2028 targets every 5 years

Pcb priority list
PCB: Priority List

Each Party shall (Annex A - Part II)

Identify, label and remove from use equipment


(i) >10% PCB and volumes >5 litres;

(ii) >0.05 per cent PCB and volumes >5 litres;

(iii) >0.005 percent PCBs and volumes >0.05 litres.

0.05 %  500 ppm; 0.005 %  50 ppm

Pcb management annex a part ii
PCB Management (Annex A - Part II)

(b) Reduction of exposures and risk:

i) Intact and non-leaking equipment and only in areas where the risk from environmental release can be minimised and quickly remedied;

(ii) No use of equipment in areas associated with the production or processing of food or feed;

(iii) When used in populated areas, including schools and hospitals, all reasonable measures to protect from electrical failure which could result in a fire, and regular inspection of equipment for leaks;

Timetable for pcb
Timetable for PCB

  • Elimination of the use of PCB in equipment(e.g., transformers, capacitors or other receptacles containing liquid stocks) by 2025;

  • Environmentally sound waste management of liquids containing PCB and equipment with PCB content above 0.005 per cent as soon as possible but no later than 2028;

  • Report progress in elimination every 5 years.

Ddt annex b
DDT - Annex B

  • All Parties shall- eliminate production and use except for disease vector control programs: * special DDT register * reporting and other obligations- promote research and development for alternatives to DDT

  • The COP will review at its 1st meeting and every 3 years thereafter to see when DDT is no longer needed for disease vector control use

Intentional pops trade
Intentional POPs - Trade

  • Imports/exports of all POPs in Annexes A and B between Parties are limited to shipments:- intended for environmentally sound disposal, or- to Parties with: * "specific exemptions" under Annexes A or B, or * "acceptable purposes" under Annex B

  • Exports to non-Parties may take place subject to:- conditions on both Non-Party and Party, and- accountability requirements for the use and disposal of POPs.

54 countries asked for 108 exemptions
54 Countries Asked for 108 Exemptions:

DDT 36 Vector control, contaminant (Korea) intermediate for dicofol (China, India)

PCB 34 In electrical equipment (Poland)

Chlordane 14Termiticide, plywood (Japan, Korea)

HCB 13 Intermediate, solvent for pesticides, contam- inant chlorthalonil, Cl5Bz (Poland, Korea)

Heptachlor 7 Termiticide, articles in use (Japan, Korea)

Mirex 2 Termiticide (Australia, China)

Aldrin 1 Ectoparasiticide, insecticide (Comores)

Dieldrin 1 Agricultural stocks - 2 years (India)

Unintentionally produced pops
Unintentionally Produced POPs

Compounds included (Annex C):PCDD/PCDF(incl. 12 dioxin-like PCB; WHO-TEFs)PCB and HCB

Article 5

Each Party shall at a minimum take the following measures to reduce the total releases … of each of the chemicals listed in Annex C, with the goal of their continuing minimization and, where feasible, ultimate elimination.

Pcdd pcdf article 5 a e
PCDD/PCDF: Article 5 (a-e)

(a) establish action plan (source identification, release inventories)

(b) promote measures to achieve realistic release reduction or source elimination

(c) Promote/require the use of substitute or modified materials, products and processes to prevent the formation and release of the chemicals in Annex C

(d) Promote/require the use of BAT for new sources and promote use of BEP for identified source categories

(e) Promote the use of BEP for existing sources and for sources not covered under (d)

Pcdd pcdf article 5 a i
PCDD/PCDF: Article 5 (a) (i)

(a) Develop an action plan … within two years of the date of entry into force of this Convention …. Designed to identify, characterize and address the releases of the chemicals listed in Annex C …

(i) An evaluation of current and projected releases, including the development and maintenance of source inventories and release estimates, taking into consideration the source categories identified in Annex C

Annex c part ii source categories
Annex C - Part II Source Categories

(a) Waste incinerators, including co-incineration of municipal, hazardous or medical waste or sewage sludge

(b) Cement kilns firing hazardous waste

(c) Production of pulp using elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental chlorine for bleaching

(d)The following thermal processes in the metallurgical industry

(i) Secondary copper production; (ii) Sinter plants in the iron and steel industry; (iii) Secondary aluminum production; (iv) Secondary zinc production.

Annex c part iii source categories
Annex C - Part III Source Categories

  • open burning of wastes (including landfill sites)

  • thermal processes in metallurgical industry not specified in Part II

  • residential combustion sources

  • fossil-fuel fired utility and industrial boilers

  • firing installations for wood and other biomass fuels

  • chemical production processes releasing unintentionally produced POPs (e.g., production of chlorophenols and chloranil)

  • motor vehicles, especially those burning leaded gasoline

  • textile and leather dying and finishing

  • shredder plants for the treatment of end-of life vehicles

  • destruction of animal carcasses

  • crematoria

  • smouldering of copper cables

  • waste oils refineries

Bat prevention methods annex c
BAT: Prevention Methods (Annex C)

a) The use of low-waste technology;

(b) The use of less hazardous substances;

(c) The promotion of recovery/recycling of waste and of substances;

(d) Replacement of POPs feed materials or where there is a direct link between the materials and releases of POPs from the source;

(e) Good housekeeping and preventive maintenance programmes;

(f) Improvements in waste management with the aim of cessation of open and other uncontrolled burning of wastes, landfill sites. Before constructing new waste disposal facilities, consideration should be given to minimize the generation of municipal and medical waste, including resource recovery, reuse, recycling, waste separation and promoting products that generate less waste. Public health concerns should be carefully considered;

(g) Minimization of these chemicals as contaminants in products;

(h) Avoiding elemental chlorine or chemicals generating elemental chlorine for bleaching.

General considerations of bat
General Considerations of BAT

(i) Nature, effects and mass of the releases concerned: techniques may vary depending on source size

(ii) Commissioning dates for new or existing installations;

(iii) Time needed to introduce the best available technique;

(iv) Consumption/nature of raw materials and energy efficiency;

(v) Need to prevent or reduce to a minimum the overall impact of the releases to the environment and the risks to it;

(vi) Need to prevent accidents and to minimize their consequences for the environment;

(vii) Need to ensure occupational health and safety at workplaces;

(viii) Comparable processes, facilities or methods of operation which have been tried with success on an industrial scale;

(ix) Technological advances, changes in scientific knowledge and understanding.

General release reduction measures
General Release Reduction Measures

(b) For new facilities or significantly modifying existing facilities that release POPs, priority consideration should be given to alternative processes, techniques or practices that have similar usefulness but which avoid the formation and release of POPs. ... Reduction measures to be considered in determining best available techniques:

(i) Use of improved methods for flue-gas cleaning such as thermal or catalytic oxidation, dust precipitation, or adsorption;

(ii) Treatment of residuals, wastewater, wastes and sewage sludge by, for example, thermal treatment or rendering them inert or chemical processes that detoxify them;

(iii) Process changes that lead to the reduction or elimination of releases, such as moving to closed systems;

(iv) Modification of process designs to improve combustion and prevent formation of POPs, through the control of parameters such as incineration temperature or residence time.

Definition of goals and bat
Definition of Goals and BAT

NOTE: The Stockholm Convention does not set any numeric emission limits nor reduction requirements (in percent).

(g) Release limit values or performance standards may be used by a Party to fulfil its commitments for best available techniques under this paragraph.

Timetable for dioxins furans
Timetable for Dioxins/Furans

  • Establish an action plan within 2 years after entry into force of the Convention for the Party;

  • A review of the strategies in the action plan to achieve the goals every 5 years;

  • Phase in the requirements of BAT identified for new sources as soon as possible but not later than 4 years after entry into force

  • These dates are part of the Convention and not negotiable

  • Linkage to Article 7 on National Implementation Plans

Article 6 stockpiles and wastes
Article 6 - Stockpiles and Wastes

  • Develop appropriate strategies for identifying stockpiles, products/articles in use and wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with a POP;

  • Manage stockpiles in a safe, efficient and environmentally sound manner;

  • Take appropriate measures to handle, transport, store in ESM, dispose of that the POP content is destroyed or irreversible transformed or otherwise disposed of in an ESM; not permit disposal operations that may lead to recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct reuse or alternative use of POPs, develop strategies to identify POPs contaminated sites.

Pops wastes snapshot
POPs Wastes (Snapshot)

Chemical kg

Aldrin 33,991 Pesticide data from:

Chlordane 41,841 FAO (Rome)

DDT 637,046 Obsolete/Unwanted Pesticide

Dieldrin 715,881 Database

Endrin 71,617

Heptachlor 6,597

Mirex 56

Toxaphene 314,447

Total 1,821,476

PCB 12,988 tons15 countries: Basel 1998

New pops
New POPs

Goal = to identify possible POPs as early as possible in assessment programs and take action to reduce or eliminate generation and/or releases

  • Parties with regulatory and assessment schemes shall:- New substances = take measures to regulate them with the aim to prevent production and use of new POPs- in-use substances = consider the screening criteria for POPs candidates for addition to the Convention

  • Convention does not require the establishment of such programs

Criteria for new pops annex d
Criteria for New POPs (Annex D)

  • Chemical identity: Name (trade, commercial, synonyms, CAS, IUPAC, CAS RN); structure, isomers;

  • Persistence: t1/2water > 2 months, t1/2soil / sediment > 6 months;

  • Bioaccumulation: BCF or BAF > 5 000 or log KOW > 5;

  • Potential for Long-Range Environmental Transport:Measured or modelled data, pathways = air, water, migratory species; t1/2 air > 2 d;

  • Adverse effect: Evidence or (eco)toxicity data show adverse effect to human health or environment.

General obligations
General Obligations

  • Designate a National Focal Point;

  • Develop, implement and update an implementation plan;

  • Promote and facilitate a wide range of public information, awareness and education measures for policy makers and all stakeholders;

  • Encourage and, as resources permit, undertake research, development, monitoring and cooperation on all aspects of POPs and their alternatives;

  • Report to the COP on: measures taken by Party to implement the Convention- effectiveness of the measures taken;- data concerning trade in intentionally produced POPs

Financial technical assistance
Financial & Technical Assistance

  • Developing countries and countries with economies in transition will need technical assistance;

  • Regional and sub-regional centers will be established for capacity building and transfer of technology to assist countries in need;

  • Developed countries will provide technical assistance and new and additional financial resources to meet full incremental implementation cost;

  • Global Environment Facility (GEF) is named as the principal entity of the interim financial mechanism to handle funding of capacity building and other related activities

Implementation aspects
Implementation Aspects

  • Convention will enter into force 90 days after 50th ratification/accession

  • COP will be established to oversee implementation:- must meet within 1 year of entry-into-force thereafter at regular intervals;- must review effectiveness of Convention commencing 4 years after entry-into-force, and periodically thereafter: * COP1 will arrange for comparable monitoring data on presence of POPs and regional/global environmental transport, and for reports on monitoring on regional and global basis;- COP1 to establish POPs Review Committee;

  • UNEP will provide the Secretariat.

Convention status
Convention Status

  • Opened for signature on May 23, 2001 (Stockholm)until May 22, 2002 (New York at UN headquarters)- 151 Countries have signed- 21 Parties to the convention

  • INC-6 - June 17-21, 2002 in Geneva- Preparations for COP1- Implement the Stockholm resolutions

  • INC-7 – June 2003 in Geneva

  • Convention text available in six languages

Web sites
Web Sites

UNEP homepage:

Stockholm Convention homepage:[]