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POPs waste disposal under the Stockholm Convention. Key elements. David Piper Task Manager (POPs enabling activities) UNEP DGEF. Convention provisions relating to wastes. Article 3 measures to reduce/eliminate releases from intentional production and use

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pops waste disposal under the stockholm convention

POPs waste disposal under the Stockholm Convention

Key elements

David Piper

Task Manager (POPs enabling activities)

UNEP DGEF

convention provisions relating to wastes
Convention provisions relating to wastes
  • Article 3 measures to reduce/eliminate releases from intentional production and use
  • Article 5 measures to reduce/eliminate releases from unintentional production
  • Article 6 measures to reduce/eliminate releases from stockpiles and wastes
article 3 measures to reduce or eliminate releases from intentional production and use
Article 3: Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from intentional production and use

Restricts trade of POPs chemicals to:

  • purposes/uses permitted under registered specific exemptions/acceptable purpose
  • environmentally sound disposal
    • (paragraph 1d of Art 6)
article 5 annex c measures to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production
Article 5 & Annex C:Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production
  • Develop action plans
  • Promote
    • available, feasible and practical measures to achieve realistic and meaningful levels of release reduction or source elimination
    • substitute products and processes
    • the use of BAT/BEP
      • BAT required for new Part II sources 4 years after entry into force

Preventing POPs waste arising

reducing releases promote available feasible practical measures
Improved waste management

Treatment of residuals and wastes

Improved flue-gas cleaning

Low-waste technologies

Recovery and recycling of wastes

Good housekeeping

Improved product quality

Avoiding use & generation of elemental Cl

Less hazardous raw materials

Process changes – e.g. closed systems

Process modification – e.g. to improve combustion

Reducing releases“…promote available, feasible, practical measures…”
waste related source categories
Waste-related source categories

Annex C Part II

  • Waste incinerators, including co-incineration of municipal, hazardous or medical waste or of sewage sludge
  • Cement kilns firing hazardous waste
  • Secondary copper, aluminium and zinc production

Annex C Part III

    • Open burning of waste, including burning of landfill sites
    • Crematoria and destruction of animal carcasses
    • Shredder plants for treatment of vehicles
    • Smouldering of copper cables
    • Waste oil refineries
article 6 measures to reduce or eliminate releases from stockpiles and wastes
Article 6:Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from stockpiles and wastes
  • Stockpiles
  • Wastes
  • Contaminated sites
  • Linkage to Basel Convention
stockpiles
Stockpiles

Article 6 Paragraph 1 (a), (b), (c)

  • Develop strategies to identify POPs stockpiles, & products in use
  • Identify POPs stockpiles & products in use
  • Manage POPs stockpiles in an environmentally sound manner
wastes products and articles upon becoming wastes
Wastes (& products and articles upon becoming wastes)

No identify here but implied in the next point

Article 6 Paragraph 1 (a), (d)

  • Develop strategies to identify POPs wastes
  • Handle, collect, transport & store wastes in an environmentally sound manner
  • Dispose
    • so that POPs content is destroyed or irreversibly transformed
    • In an environmentally sound manner if destruction not preferred
    • in a way that does not lead to recovery, recycling, reclamation, or reuse of POPs
  • Transport POPs wastes across international boundaries according to international rules

Article 6 Paragraph 1 (e); Contaminated sites

  • Develop strategies to identify contaminated sites
    • (and ensure that remediation is performed in environmentally sound manner)

Art 5

slide10

Wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with POPs

Is the

content of the waste

arising known?

Conduct

analyses &

report

Municipal,

industrial or

hazardous wastes

No

Yes

Does the waste

Include products or articles

consisting of, containing or

contaminated with

POPs?

Dispose as appropriate for waste, noting

obligations under Article 5 & Annex C re

unintentional production of POPs byproducts

Yes

No

Are sources

of POPs wastes

known?

Identify sources of wastes & seek to

minimize or eliminate, then …

No

Yes

Develop strategy, allowing waste separation

& appropriate management compatible with

Article 6.1.a,d, then…

Are POPs wastes

separated?

No

  • 1.Prepare management plans to such that wastes are
  • handled, collected, transported and stored in an
  • environmentally sound manner
  • 2. Dispose of wastes so that POPs content is destroyed or
  • irreversibly transformed
  • Or dispose in ESM where destruction is
  • Not environmentally preferred, or
  • POPs content is low
  • (Article 6.1.a,d) Note obligations under Article 5 & Annex C

Yes

Are wastes

To be exported?

POPs

waste

No

Yes

Export of

POPs waste for

environmentally

sound disposal ?

Prepare management plans compatible with

international rules, standards & guidelines

Yes

No

Prohibit unacceptable trade

paragraph 2 of article 6
Paragraph 2 of Article 6
  • Stockholm COPs to cooperate closely with Basel COP to:
    • Establish levels of destruction and irreversible transformation to ensure that POPs characteristics are not exhibited
    • Determine what methods constitute environmentally sound disposal
    • Define “low POPs content” for purposes of environmentally sound disposal
waste guidelines
Waste guidelines
    • Developed through Basel OEWG subgroup
    • Adopted by Basel Convention COP October 2004

Stockholm Convention Secretariat is requested:

  • to prepare a report on such guidelines relating to POPs as may be adopted by the CoP to the Basel Convention,
  • analyse the implications of those guidelines for the Stockholm Convention
  • indicate elements that might be considered suitable for adoption under paragraph 2 of Article 6 of the Stockholm Convention.
pcbs annex a part ii
PCBs – Annex A Part II
  • Cease production of new PCBs immediately
    • New PCB = waste
  • Eliminate use of in-place PCB equipment by 2025
  • Achieve environmentally sound disposal of PCB wastes as soon as possible and not later than 2028
pcb objectives
PCB objectives
  • Ensuring that PCBs in use remain in responsible hands
  • Orderly removal from use
    • an integral part of business planning & capital investment
    • Government an important owner of PCBs
  • Environmentally sound destruction
  • Prevention of further contamination
slide15

PCBs

Party possess ……

..equipment

contaminated

with PCBs

..obsolete equipment

contaminated

with PCBs?

..PCB liquids and

liquids contaminated

with PCBs

..other materials

contaminated

with PCBs

1. Classify as waste

2. Make determined efforts designed to lead to environmentally sound waste management of liquids contaminated with PCBs having a PCB content above 50 ppm as soon as possible but no later than 2028

3. Provide a report every five years on progress in eliminating PCBs and submit it to the CoP

1. Manage these materials in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 6

2. In lieu of note (ii) in Part I of Annex A, endeavour to identify other articles containing more than 0.005 % PCBs (e.g. cable-sheaths, cured caulk and painted objects)

3. Provide a report every five years on progress in eliminating PCBs and submit it to the CoP

Go to decision tree 11 (equipment and obsolete equipment contaminated with PCBs)

Go to decision tree 5 (Stocks of POPs)

Go to decision tree 8 (wastes)

Decision tree: PCBs

slide16

Party possesses

equipment contaminated

with PCBs

Note: Any PCB-containing equipment imported after becoming Party to the Convention has to be defined as waste

Except for maintenance and servicing operations, not allow recovery for the purpose of reuse in other equipment of liquids with PCBs content above 0.005 %

Does the

Party use equipment

contaminated

with

PCBs?

Is the

PCB-contaminated

equipment de-

commissioned?

No

No

is the equipment

maintained for reuse?

Yes

No

Go to decision tree 12 (use of PCB equipment)

Go to decision tree 8 (wastes)

Party possess

decommissioned or offline

equipment contaminated

with PCBs

PCB Equipment and offlineordecommissioned equipment contaminated with PCBs

1. Define as waste

2. Make determined efforts designed to lead to environmentally sound waste management of equipment contaminated with PCBs having a PCB content above 50 ppm as soon as possible but no later than 2028

3. Provide a report every five years on progress in eliminating PCBs and submit it to the Conference of the Parties

slide17

Use of equipment

contaminated

with PCBs

1st priority

Does

equipment in use

contain greater than 10 % PCBs

and volumes greater

than 5 litres?

Make determined efforts to identify, label and remove from use by 2025, then….

Yes

Reanalyze and reclassify PCB-containing equipment

From decision

tree 13

No

2ndpriority

Does

equipment in use

contain greater than 0.05 % PCBs

and volumes greater

than 5 litres?

Make determined efforts to identify, label and remove from use by 2025, then…

Yes

From decision

tree 13

No

3rd priority

Does

equipment in use

contain greater than 0.005 % PCBs

and volumes greater

than 0.05 litres?

Endeavour to identify and remove from use by 2025, then…

Yes

Go to decision tree 13

No

No

Does the

analysis of equipment in

use show a PCB content less

than 0.005 %

?

Regarded as PCB-free under the SC

Yes

Use of equipment contaminated

with PCBs

Priorities related to volume and concentration of PCBs

slide18

Take measure to improve condition of the equipment or decommission

From decision

tree 12

Take measure to reduce risk of environmental release and assure that releases can be quickly remedied

Is the equipment

intact and non-leaking?

No

Is the equipment

used in areas where the risk

from environmental release can be

minimised and quickly

remedied ?

Yes

No

Take measure to remove from use

Is

the equipment

used in areas associated with

the production or processing

of food and

feed ?

Yes

Yes

No

Is

the equipment used

in populated areas, including

schools and

hospitals?

Provide a report every five years on progress in eliminating PCBs and submit it to the Conference of the Parties

Yes

No

Take all reasonable measures to protect from electrical failure which could result in a fire, and regular inspection of equipment for leaks

and

Go back to decision

tree 12 to next

lower priority

Use of equipment contaminated with PCBs

Priorities related to risk posed by equipment

slide19

Unserviceable?

PCB

equipment

maintenance

Maintenance, refilling etc

Destruction technologies

Incineration/

co-incineration

Transfer (drums/bulk)

Extraction, pre-treatment technologies

PCB oils

draining/

solvent washing

unserviceable

equipment

Other oxidising process

contaminated

mineral oils

+ solvents

Dismantling, shredding

‘opening’ + solvent wash

Servicing wastes

Chemical reduction

process

thermal desorption

Soils, sediments,

rubble etc.

contaminated

wood, paper,

clothing,

cables etc

other

Other

Decontaminated

soil, rubble

Decontaminated

metals for recycling

Release

monitoring

Release

monitoring

If ‘extraction’ and destruction on same site, transfer may be direct, otherwise drummed & shipped according to Basel requirements

Release to air, water,

landfill

POPs?

 YES YES 

No

Release to hazardous

waste site

Air, liquid & solid waste

treatment technologies

slide20

Thank You

David Piper

Task Manager (POPs enabling activities)

UNEP DGEF

dpiper@chemicals.unep.ch

slide21

Municipalities & contractors

Re-use & recycling

Waste minimisation,

IPPC, BAT

Hazardous

Incineration

Production

Treatment

Separated Waste

Inert

Storage

Industry

Landfill

Special landfill

Governments +

Industrial waste systems

slide22

Returns to industry

Re-use & recycling

Individuals

Home composting

Composting

Source separation

Delivery

Incineration

Waste

Separate collection

Sorting

Landfill

Treatment

Mixed collection

Compaction,

transfer

Municipalities & contractors

Governments +

Municipal solid waste systems