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The Reproductive System Anatomy of the reproductive system Hormonal control Fertilization and development Contraception “Assisted reproduction”. Formation of gametes Sperm Eggs Fertilization- fusion of gametes zygote Zygote divides repeatedly; differentiates
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Fertilization- fusion of gametes
Zygote divides repeatedly; differentiates
into unique cells and tissues
produce gametes and hormones
ducts to trasnport the gametes
accessory glands and organs
into scrotum at 7th month of development
Temperature in scrotum is slightly lower than
Spermatogenesis (formation of sperm)
interstitial cells-produce testosterone
Process takes about 9 weeks
Epididymis- is actually over 20 feet long!
spermatazoa complete maturation
as they move through epididymis
(about 2 weeks)
Ductus deferens (vas deferens)
secretions from prostate
bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands)
Contractions help move sperm
Hypothalamus (conscious control)
neurotransmitter- nitric oxide?
promotes blood flow into penis
(Viagra- promotes vasodilation)
Control of emission and ejaculation
sympathetic nerves- muscle contraction
uterine (Fallopian) tubes
Pituitary and gonadal hormones
Must coordinate ovarian and uterine cycles
Do they work?
Are they safe?
Are they available?
Are they affordable?
Do they protect against sexually transmitted
Does NOT protect against STDs
Antibiotics can inhibit effect
Can increase risk of heart attack or stroke
can promote clot formation (estrogen)
can promote atherosclerosis (progesterone)
Can promote vaginal and cervical infections
Can promote cervical cancer from HPV
little safer but not quite as effective
Minipill (every day)
Depo-Provera (3 months)
Norplant (5 years)
shut off testosterone
lowers sperm count, but linked with reduced
sex drive and erectile dysfunction
supplemental dose of testosterone
high rate of permanent sterility
does not completely inhibit sperm production
in everyone, but is reversible
Answer: not yet
Safe and effective
Risk of inflammatory disease, and subsequent
Recommended for women who don’t want
future pregnancy or are not at risk
Condoms (male and female)
Not as effective in pregnancy prevention
Do provide protection against STDs
Minute knowledge of woman’s cycle
Indicators of ovulation
Vaccines against sperm, eggs, hCG, hormones
Diaphragms with spermicide
Vaginal rings with progestins