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The Reproductive System Anatomy of the reproductive system Hormonal control Fertilization and development Contraception PowerPoint Presentation
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The Reproductive System Anatomy of the reproductive system Hormonal control Fertilization and development Contraception “Assisted reproduction”. Formation of gametes Sperm Eggs Fertilization- fusion of gametes zygote Zygote divides repeatedly; differentiates

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Reproductive System

  • Anatomy of the reproductive system
  • Hormonal control
  • Fertilization and development
  • Contraception
  • “Assisted reproduction”
slide2

Formation of gametes

Sperm

Eggs

Fertilization- fusion of gametes

zygote

Zygote divides repeatedly; differentiates

into unique cells and tissues

slide3

Features of reproductive system

Gonads

produce gametes and hormones

ducts to trasnport the gametes

accessory glands and organs

(secrete fluids)

external genitalia

slide5

Testes are formed in abdomen and descend

into scrotum at 7th month of development

Temperature in scrotum is slightly lower than

in body

Spermatogenesis (formation of sperm)

sperm-forming cells

Sertoli cells

interstitial cells-produce testosterone

Process takes about 9 weeks

slide8

Spermatazoa in testes are not yet capable

of fertilization

Epididymis- is actually over 20 feet long!

spermatazoa complete maturation

as they move through epididymis

(about 2 weeks)

Ductus deferens (vas deferens)

Ejaculatory duct

slide9

Ejaculatory duct

Sperm

Seminal fluid

secretions from prostate

seminal vesicles

bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands)

Activate sperm

Provide nutrients

Contractions help move sperm

Buffers

slide11

Control of erection

Hypothalamus (conscious control)

Parasympathetic nerves

neurotransmitter- nitric oxide?

promotes blood flow into penis

(Viagra- promotes vasodilation)

Control of emission and ejaculation

sympathetic nerves- muscle contraction

slide13

Female reproductive system

Ovaries

Accessory organs

uterus

uterine (Fallopian) tubes

vagina

external genitalia

slide17

Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle

Pituitary and gonadal hormones

Must coordinate ovarian and uterine cycles

slide20

Evaluation of contraceptive methods

Do they work?

Are they safe?

Are they available?

Are they affordable?

Do they protect against sexually transmitted

diseases (STDs)

slide21

Abstinence

Surgical sterilization

essentially permanent

slide24

Oral contraception

Prevents ovulation

Is reversible

Does NOT protect against STDs

slide26

Risks of oral contraception

Requires discipline

Antibiotics can inhibit effect

Can increase risk of heart attack or stroke

can promote clot formation (estrogen)

can promote atherosclerosis (progesterone)

Can promote vaginal and cervical infections

Can promote cervical cancer from HPV

slide27

Progesterone-only contraceptives may be a

little safer but not quite as effective

Minipill (every day)

Depo-Provera (3 months)

Norplant (5 years)

slide28

Is there a male pill?

Strategies:

shut off testosterone

lowers sperm count, but linked with reduced

sex drive and erectile dysfunction

supplemental dose of testosterone

Inhibit FSH?

high rate of permanent sterility

Inhibit GnRH?

does not completely inhibit sperm production

in everyone, but is reversible

Answer: not yet

slide29

IUD

Safe and effective

Risk of inflammatory disease, and subsequent

sterility

Recommended for women who don’t want

future pregnancy or are not at risk

for STD

slide30

Barrier methods

Diaphragms

Cervical caps

Condoms (male and female)

Spermicides

Not as effective in pregnancy prevention

Do provide protection against STDs

Availability

slide31

Fertility awareness (“natural family planning”)

Minute knowledge of woman’s cycle

Indicators of ovulation

body temperature

cervical mucus

slide32

Future methods?

Vaccines against sperm, eggs, hCG, hormones

Diaphragms with spermicide

Vaginal rings with progestins

Skin patches