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Sui, Tang, Song


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Sui, Tang, Song

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  1. Post-Classical China By Alec Resurreccion, Jonathan Valuriya, and Alex Katavolos

  2. Dynasties

  3. Sui Dynasty (589-618 C.E.) • Centralized China after Han Dynasty fell. • Labor services • Demands on citizens • Yang Jian (Wen of Sui)- First ruler of the dynasty • Sui Yangdi- brought up the Grand Canal • Assassinated because he applied high taxes and forced labor

  4. The Grand Canal Allowed for trade throughout China (mainly north and south). 2,000 km long Brought up by Sui Yangdi

  5. Tang Dynasty (618-907 C.E.) • Tang Taizong- China’s 2nd emperor • Ambitious and ruthless but still successful • Stable government • Balanced economy • Built a capital city called Chang’an • Continued foreign relationships with neighboring lands • Balanced on 3 policies: • Well-maintained transportation and communications • Equal-field system • Bureaucracy based on merit

  6. Decline • Crisis began in 755 with careless leadership • Neglect of public affairs • Rebellions caused by people like An Lushan and Huang Chao • Invasions by the Uighurs, a nomadic Turkish people • Equal-field system disintegrated • Taxes were never met • Increase of power to the military commanders

  7. “A Song of War Chariots” By Du Fu The war-chariots rattle,The war-horses whinny.Each man of you has a bow and a quiver at his belt.Father, mother, son, wife, stare at you going,Till dust shall have buried the bridge beyond Changan.They run with you, crying, they tug at your sleeves,And the sound of their sorrow goes up to the clouds;And every time a bystander asks you a question,You can only say to him that you have to go....We remember others at fifteen sent north to guard the riverAnd at forty sent west to cultivate the campfarms.The mayor wound their turbans for them when they started out.With their turbaned hair white now, they are still at the border,At the border where the blood of men spills like the sea --And still the heart of Emperor Wu is beating for war....Do you know that, east of China's mountains, in two hundred districts And in thousands of villages, nothing grows but weeds,And though strong women have bent to the ploughing,East and west the furrows all are broken down?...Men of China are able to face the stiffest battle,But their officers drive them like chickens and dogs.Whatever is asked of them,Dare they complain?For example, this winterHeld west of the gate,Challenged for taxes,How could they pay?...We have learned that to have a son is bad luck-It is very much better to have a daughterWho can marry and live in the house of a neighbour,While under the sod we bury our boys....Go to the Blue Sea, look along the shoreAt all the old white bones forsaken --New ghosts are wailing there now with the old,Loudest in the dark sky of a stormy day.

  8. Song Dynasty (960-1279 C.E.) • Song Taizu- first emperor that emphasized on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts • Two parts: North and South • Paper money • Civil Service Exams • Diplomatic relations with other countries • Center of rapid scientific and technical progress, like the Han

  9. Decline • Engaged in wars against the other kingdoms against the: • Xia • Lao • Viet • Liao • Jurchens • Jin • Mongols • Declined due to the Mongols

  10. Economy and Society

  11. Economy- Agriculture • Fast-ripening rice- harvest two crops per year • Iron plows • Used oxen and water buffaloes • Used manure and composed organic matter • Extensive irrigation systems • Water wheels • Terraces • Increase of food supplies

  12. Economy- Cities and Market Population Market Economy • Fall of the Han- 45 million • Fall of the Song- 115 million • Encouraged growth of cities like Hangzhou (capital of after Song) • Had many buildings for recreation and service • Trade of popular goods such as staple crops, silk, porcelain • “Flying cash” • Paper money • Cosmopolitan- welcomed foreign peoples • Became interested in foreign goods

  13. Industry and Technology • Porcelain (a.k.a. Chinaware)- spread to SE Asia, India, Persia, and East Africa • Iron and metal tools • Gunpowder- “fire lances” (flamethrower), bombs, and cannons • Printing- movable type • Ships • Compass

  14. Religions and Philosophies Buddhism Chan Buddhism • Spread from the Silk Road • Encouraged a different, peaceful lifestyle • Ascetic • Celibate • Monastic • Monasteries- essential for religion and local economies • More focused on metaphysical issues than written issues • Xuanxang- one of the pilgrims that traveled to India • Syncretic result of Buddhism and China • Applied Chinese beliefs (mainly Daoist) • For example: • Dharma Dao • Nirvana Wuwei • Encouraged family life

  15. Conflicts Against Buddhism Effects Neo-Confucianism • Scorned for being foreign • Described as economically harmful to the country • Much more common in the territories • Did become very popular in mainland China during the Song Dynasty • Hostile towards outside influences • Emphasis on filial piety and relationships • Eventually started persecuting Buddhists and destroying monasteries • Zhu Xi (1130-1200)

  16. Women Treatment Footbinding • China was patriarchal • Sons were preferred to daughters • The death rate of female babies was higher than the death rate of male babies • Ancient Chinese women knew about Muslim women and knew that they were better off. • Symbolized the painful constraints of life as a women • Even peasant women were supposed to bind their feet.

  17. Tributary States (Territories)

  18. Vietnam • Tense relationship with the native Nam Viets • Absorbed some Tang Chinese society • Agricultural methods • Irrigation techniques • Education • Government techniques • Confucian exams and texts • Trade • Became fully independent after Tang fell

  19. Korea • The most influenced from China • “Cultural Bridge” • Mainly borrowed ideas of: • Government- bureaucracy and court system • Philosophy-Confucianism (popular to elites) • Religion- Chan Buddhism (popular to peasants) • Had conflicts with the native Silla dynasty • Agreed to a compromise leading to Korea being independent but beneficial to China

  20. Japan • China never attacked or invaded Japan • Influence from Sui and Tang China (mainly in the Nara period): • Adopted Confucian and Buddhist beliefs • Bureaucracy • Equal-field system • Replicated Chang’an • Modeled writing system • Developed their own religion- Shinto • Nara (710-794 A.D.) and Heian (794-1185 A.D.) periods had most of Japan’s development • Feudalism came in the Kamakura (1185-1333 C.E.) and Muromachi (1336-1573 C.E.) periods

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