TEACHING SOCIAL AND LIFE SKILLS TO CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES THROUGH SELF-EVALUATION METHODS
* Discover effective methods of treatment * Help people develop the skills necessary for further development - Social Skills - Life Skills - Academic Skills * Gain Independence
Study One: SELF-MONITORING OF ATTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR VERSUS SELF-MONITORING OF PRODUCTIVITY: EFFECTS ON ON-TASK BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC RESPONSE RATE AMONG LEARNING DISABLED CHILDREN Karen R. Harris, University of Maryland Harris, K. R. (1986). Self-monitoring of attentional behavior versus self-monitoring of productivity: Effects on on-task behavior and academic response rate among learning disabled children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 417–423.
All participants ranged from 9 years and 10 months to 10 years and 6 months of age • All participants had an IQ score between 58-115 on the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children • Nominated by mainstream classroom teacher for having significant attentional and productivity problems • All students understood and correctly used the 6-step spelling method • Increased on-task behavior and increased academic performance Subjects 1 & 4- female Subjects 2 & 3- Male
Spelling Chart Look at the word Close your eyes and spell the word Study the word again Cover the word Write the word 3 times Check your spelling
Dependent Variable 1: • Tape recorder • “Was I paying attention?” • Yes/No tally chart • Dependent Variable 2: • Count # of words written • down at end of 15-minute • spelling period Dependent Variable 1: on-task behavior - eyes focused on paper - eyes closed reciting word - word covered, lips moving - writing word - checking word How was Self-Monitoring Used? Dependent Variable 2: Academic Performance - total number of times student correctly spelled their words
Results On-task behavior Baseline: 32-57% Post-Intervention: 77-91% It Worked!!! Academic Performance Baseline: 14-32 words Post-Intervention: 47-78 words
Percentage of On-Task Behavior Number of Correct Spelling Words Subject 1: Female
Percentage of On-Task Behavior Number of Correct Spelling Words Subject 2: Male
Percentage of On-Task Behavior Number of Correct Spelling Words Subject 3: Male
Percentage of On-Task Behavior Number of Correct Spelling Words Subject 4: Female
Study Two: IMPROVING SOCIAL SKILLS AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM THROUGH SELF-MANAGEMENT Lynn Kern Koegel, Robert L. Koegel, Christine Hurley, and William D. Frea, University of Santa Barbara Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Hurley, C. & Frea, W. D. (1992). Improving social skills and disruptive behavior in children with autism through self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 341-353.
The Twins • Tony: • 6 years, 10 months • Studied for 22 months • Stanford Binet: 58 • Peabody Picture Vocabulary : 4 years, 4 months • Leiter International Performance Scale: 100 non-verbal • Numerous disruptive behaviors • - self injury • - inappropriate emotions • - frequent temper tantrums • - physical aggression • - self stimulatory behaviors • Howard: • 6 years, 10 months • Studied for 22 months • Stanford Binet: 74 • Peabody Picture Vocabulary : 4 years, 2 months • Leiter International Performance Scale: 111 non-verbal • Numerous disruptive behaviors • - occasional temper tantrums • - frequently ran away • - exhibited inappropriate • affect • - poor concentration • - poor attention
Ian: • Classroom of children • with severe • disabilities • 11 years, 2 months • Studied for 27 months • Stanford Binet: 58 with a verbal score of 53 • Vineland Social Maturity Score: 73 • Numerous disruptive behaviors • - masturbation • - inappropriate noises and • singing • - tantrums • - aggression toward mother • Adam: • 11 years, 1 month • Studied for 16 months • Stanford Binet: 85 • Peabody Picture Vocabulary : 3 years, 7 months • Leiter International Performance Scale: 70 non-verbal • Numerous disruptive behaviors • - incompliance • - frequent temper tantrums • - high levels of self • stimulatory behavior • - excessive preoccupation • with objects
* Target behaviors - Increase Social Skills - Decrease disruptive behaviors * Multiple baseline design across settings • Clinic setting - Community setting - Home setting - School setting * Baseline & withdrawal conditions * How was Self-Management used? - Researchers ask questions - Wrist Counter
Results Decrease Disruptive Behavior Howard’s behavior did not decrease post-intervention, but all others showed significant improvement Increase Social Skills Baseline: 35-61% Post-Intervention: 90-100%