Swine FluDr Anil BallaniConsultant Physician Hinduja & Lilavati Hospital
Swine Flu , Hog Flu , Pig Flu • It is a strain of influenza family of viruses and the sub type is influenza A.It is also known as H1N1. • Swine influenza is very common throughout pig population in the world. • People with regular exposure to Pigs are at an increased risk of contracting the infection. • The meat of an infected animal poses NO RISK of infection when properly cooked.
History • The first swine Flu was detected in 1918 pandemic. • The H1N1 form of Swine Flu is one of the desendents that caused the 1918 pandemic. • In the pandemic about 50 million people were killed world wide. • 1976 outbreak in US. • 2007 outbreak in Philippines in swine. • 2009 outbreak in Humans.
Signs and Symptoms • Fever • Cough • Sore Throat • Body ache • Head ache • Chills • Fatigue • Diarrhea • Vomiting
The most common causes of death • 1. Respiratory failure • 2. Pneumonia • 3. High Fever • 4. Dehydration
Deaths are more common in Immuno- compromised host • In asthmatics • In COPD • In diabetics • In HIV patients • In cirrhotics • In children
Prevention of Human to Human transmission • Spreads from Human to Human through coughing , sneezing and people touching objects with the virus on it. • Humans are most contagious in the first 5 days. • To prevent : • Washing hands with soap and water or using alcohol based hand sanitisers.
Small droplets containing virus can linger on table tops , telephones , door handles , lift buttons. • Virus can spread upto a distance of 1 metre by coughing or sneezing. • Social distancing.
You can prevent the spread the germs by: • Covering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. • Washing your hands often with soap and water especially after you cough or sneeze / can use alcohol based hand sanitisers. • Avoiding touching your eyes , nose or mouth.Germs spread this way. • Trying to avoid close contact with sick people. • Staying home from work if you sick.
WHO has recommended that wearing of masks can reduce the transmission of the influenza virus. • Mainly , correct use , regular supplies and proper disposal facility. • Specially , individuals who are in close contact with people with flu like symptoms.For example providing care to family members. • Using a mask incorrectly however may actually increase the risk of transmission.
General Advice • Following general measures are more important than wearing a mask • For individuals who are well : • Maintain a distance of atleast one metre who has flu like symptoms. • refrain from touching mouth and nose • Perform hand hygiene frequently. • Reduce the time spent in close contact with the person as much as possible. • Reduce time spent in crowded settings.
Improve air flow in your living space by opening windows. • For individuals with flu like symptoms: • Stay at home and follow health recommendations. • Keep distance from healthy individuals of atleast 1 m. • Cover your mouth or nose while coughing or sneezing with tissues.Dispose tissues immediately after use or wash the napkin. • Clean hands immediately.
Treatment • Two drugs are effective : • oseltamivir (Tamiflu) - 75 mg twice daily for 5 days.Should be started within 2 days of the suspected disease. • Chemoprophylaxis - 75 mg daily after last known exposure atleast 5 - 7 days. • Zanamivir - available as inhaled powder.10 mg twice daily for 5 days. • Side effects of Tamiflu : Mild to moderate nausea vomiting. • Occasional serious skin reactions , allergic reactions.
Diagnosis • The only way to diagnose it is to give your blood samples at Kasturba hospital . • A throat swab is taken , fasting not required and the report is got after 48 hours. • Actually the samples are sent National Institute of Virology , Pune for testing H1N1. • Incase positive , Tamiflu is to be started immediately.
Thermal Scan No Vaccine against H1N1 available so far.