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  1. Indian Art Music A n I l l u s t r a t e d T a l k by Dr. Chintamani Rath Ph.D. (Indian Music)

  2. M U S I C … Where there is humanity, there is music… (but : what is music?)

  3. M u s i c O r g a n i s e d & emotionally expressive s o u n d

  4. MUSICAL GENRES IN PRESENT DAY INDIA NON - ART (“LIGHT/POPULAR”) ART (“CLASSICAL”) . N O R T H I N D I A N (“HINDUSTANI”) TRIBAL SOUTH INDIAN (“CARNATIC”) THEATRE MUSIC FOLK • Has religious/philosophic roots • Has a highly formalised grammar, dictated by textual as well as oral tradition • Has different genres (Vocal – Alap, Dhrupad/Dhamar, Khayal, Sadra, Thumri, Bhajan, Geet etc Instrumental – Alap, Masidkhani, Rajakhani, Firozkhani, Amirkhani Gat etc) • Has different styles (called Geeti, Bani or Baaj) • Has regional schools of presentation (currently called Gharanas) • Has regional variations in choice of Ragas, Talas, etc. PROVINCIAL CINEMA MUSIC RELIGIOUS OR PHILOSOPHIC “INDUSTRIAL” NON-INDIAN IMPORTS

  5. Hindustani (North Indian) Music Continuity back to Vedic times (6,000 BC) Codified in a large number of ancient and medieval music treatises Developed independently of folk music, albeit occasionally importing folk or regional elements, metamorphosing them suitably Raga based, mostly improvised Capable of intense expression in very slow speeds Vast range of ornaments, particularly during slow passages Subtle use of microtones in slow passages Steady, long-held notes, mostly approached and/or quitted by little ornamental phrases Gradual building up of tempo from very slow to very fast Convention of time and season Clear enunciation of rhythmic cycle by percussion accompanist (in dominant present day forms like Khayal, Sadra, Thumri, Bhajan etc.) True to Hindu traditions: so-called “Persian influences” fully integrated within its essential and ancient grammatical format Carnatic (South Indian) Music Of more recent origin Codified in medieval texts written by musicologists, the influential ones among whom studied in North India and thereafter returned to South India to fashion Carnatic music out of the prevalent regional musical forms to be found in South India Composition based, mostly fixed A fairly quick tempo from the start, so lacks the intensity, introspection, microtones and several ornaments found in Hindustani music Notes are not held for long and are mostly quitted by a characteristic oscillation using indeterminate pitch Constant and fairly fast tempo throughout No convention of time or season Percussion accompanist does not enunciate rhythmic cycle clearly, so a second percussionist and/or a timekeeper showing and/or clapping out beats (in which the audience joins) is necessary Contrary to advocated argument, has Muslim influences The Two Systems of Art Music in India

  6. The Gamut of Notes 8. Sa – Shadja – Do – Tonic 7. Ni – Nishada – Si/Ti – Leading Note ♭7. Ni – Komala Nishada 6. Dha – Dhaivata – Lah – Submediant ♭6. Dha – Komala Dhaivata 5. Pa – Panchama – Soh – Dominant # 4. Ma’ – Tivra/Kari Madhyama 4. Ma – Madhyama – Fah – Subdominant 3. Ga – Gandhara – Mi – Mediant ♭3. Ga – Komala Gandhara 2. Re – R’shabha – Re – Supertonic ♭2. Re – Komala R’shabha 1. Sa – Shadja – Do – Tonic

  7. Static Note – Unembellished tones: Used for teaching or analysing musical phenomena but not (except but rarely) in performance Ornamented Note – Tones embellished by different types of ornaments, such as Meend, Soot, Andolan, Gamak, Krintan, etc. : Used in performance Sound in Indian Art Music

  8. Ornaments (“Alankar”) used in Hindustani Music Andolan– “oscillation” on a note Gamak – fast Andolan. Gamak may range from the heavy and guttural to the light and almost superficial. Again, Gamak may be of varying speeds Sparsha Svara, Kan or Krintan–grace note (acciaccatura) Meend – glissando Soot or Aansh – fast Meend from one note to another distant note Mürki – akin to mordent Khatka – akin to turn Kampan – vibrato

  9. Elements of Music • Melody – notes sounded successively • Harmony – notes sounded simultaneously • Rhythm – pulses in time • Dynamics – intensity (volume) • Timbre – tone colour

  10. Melodic Organisation: According to the principles codified by the system of - RAGAs -TALAs and - performance practice Harmonic organisation: Against a fixed system of static notes sounded continuously but softly in the background and in unintended counterpoint, from an imitating accompanist Organising Notes

  11. R A G A • a melodic concept capable of intense emotional communication and comprising: • a given set of notes, ascending and descending - characteristic microtones - characteristic phrases • relative importance of the notes - characteristic ornaments or lack thereof • the general speed to be adopted • the register to be used (low or high pitch) - an accepted time of performance

  12. Organising Time – Tempo (Laya, Gati) Tempo (Laya) Slow (Vilambita) Medium (Maddhya) Fast (Druta) Medium Slow (Maddhya Vilambita) Medium Fast (Maddhya Druta) Slow (Vilambita) Fast (Druta) Very Slow (Ati Vilambita) Very Fast (Ati Druta) “Linear” (Tala-Heena) “Cyclic” (Tala-Yukta)

  13. T A L A Tala → the cyclic organisation of periodic beats (Matra) = an endlessly repeated series of ordered rhythmic syllables in time Rhythmic syllables → Names of sounds on percussion instruments (Dha, Na, Dhin, Tin, Thum, Kat, Tita, Tirakita, Ghe, Dhita, etc.) A Tala has: • Cycles – each cycle is called an “Avartana” • Divisions into bars, which may be equal or unequal • Accent points, which may be “beaten” (“Tali”) or “unbeaten” (“Khali”) • A primary accent point (“Sama”) – the point of rhythmic resolution • A vocal enunciation of the ordered rhythmic syllables in an Avartana, called “Theka”

  14. Rhythmic Improvisation (“Layakari”) • Dügün – double speed • Tigün – triple speed • Choügün – quadruple speed • Panch, Chhey, Sat, Ath, Naü, etcgün– respectively 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 etc times the original speed • Aad– 3/2 times the original speed • Aad ka Ülta – 2/3 times the original speed • Küad – two viewpoints: 5/4 or 9/4 times the original speed • Küad ka Ülta– 4/5 or 4/9 times the original speed • Biyad – there are several varieties of this: 7/4 or 27/8 (“Küad of Aad” = 9/4 of 3/2) times the original speed, etc. • Biyad ka Ülta – 4/7 or 8/27 times the original speed • Paun – 3/4 times the original speed • Paun ka Ülta – 4/3 times the original speed

  15. Performance Practice

  16. Khayal Recital • Auchār-Ālāp • Vilambit (Bada) Khayāl - Vistār (Badhat) ⇨ Sthāyi, Antarā - Behlāvā - Tān • Drut (Chhotā) Khayāl ⇨ developed similarly as above

  17. Instrumental Recital • Ālāp, Jod, Jhālā • Masidkhāni Gat * Gat, with Uthān on Tablā * Soloist Accompanist Dialogue • Razākhāni Gat ⇨ developed similarly as above ⇨ Jhālā