the use of nanoparticles in drug delivery systems l.
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presented by p arsula ii nd m tech nanoscience technology udaya school of engineering
Presented by:P.Arsula II nd M.Tech Nanoscience &TechnologyUdaya school of engineering
what is nanotechnology
What is Nanotechnology?
  • Nanoscience: involves research and technology development at 1 nm to 100nm range (nanoscale)
  • Nanotechnology creates and uses structures that have novel properties because of their small size
  • Nanotechnology builds on the ability to control or manipulate at atomic scale
applications
Applications
  • Medical
        • Bio-materials
        • Drug delivery
  • Energy and industrial
        • Solar / Fuel Cells
        • Lighting
  • Coating and powders
        • Paint
        • Textiles
  • Devices and microelectronics
        • Sensors
        • Microprocessors / memory and storage
nanomedicine
•It is the medical application of nanotechnology.

•It`s defined as the repair, construction and control of human biological systems using devices built upon nanotechnology standards.

Nanomedicine
slide7
DRUG DELIVERY:-is the method or process of administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals.
slide8

TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY: Delivering a drug to a specificsite in the body where it has the greatest effect, instead of allowing it to diffuse to various sites, where it may causedamage or triggerside effects.

CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY- is one which delivers the drug at a predetermined rate , for locally or systematiclly , for specified period of time .

methods of drug delivery
Methods of Drug Delivery

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

classical drug delivery
Classical drug delivery

For most of the pharmaceutical industries existence, drug delivery induced simple, fast-acting responses via oral or injection delivery routes

Problems associated with this approach

  • Reduced potencies because of partial degradation
  • Toxic levels of administration
  • Increase costs associated with excess dosing
  • Compliance issue due to administration pain
what and why
What and Why
  • Nanoparticle – any particle that is sized between 1 to 100 nanometers (in terms of diameter)
  • The use of nanoparticles

allows one to change the

pharmacokinetic properties

of the drug without

changing the active

compound

advantges of nanoparticles in drug delivery
Advantges of nanoparticles in drug delivery:

Large surface-to-volume ratio resulting

enhanced interaction sites

Surface functionalization for targeting

Suitable encapsulation

Release drugs in controlled manner

More efficient uptake by cells

types of nanoparticles
Types of Nanoparticles
  • Liposomes
  • Nanopowders
  • Micelle
  • Polymeric nanoparticles
  • Dendrimers
  • Fullerenes
  • Metal nanoparticles
  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Biological nanoparticles
liposomes
Liposomes
  • a self-closing spherical particle that is composed of natural or synthetic amphiphilic lipid molecules
  • -microscopic spherical vesicles that form when phospholipids are hydrated.
slide15

METHODS OF DRUG LOADING:1.Passive loading -these methods involve the loading of entrapped agents before or during the manufacturing procedure. 2.Active loading -some of the compounds with ionizable groups, and water solubility can be introduced into the liposomes after the formation of intact vesicles.-

slide16

What is doxorubicin liposomal (Doxil)?

Doxorubicin liposomal is a cancer (antineoplastic) medication. Doxorubicin liposomal interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body.

Doxorubicin liposomal is used to treat metastaticovarian cancerand AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

slide17

Doxil is the drug doxorubicin HCl encapsulated in an antibody linked PEGylated liposome

  • Composed of multiple monoclonal antibodies to target cancer cells
  • PEG (polyethylene glycol) makes the liposome less vulnerable to immune system
  • Lipid composition: mainly diastearoylphospatidylcholine and cholesterol - increases liposomal rigidity
slide18

PEGylation, by increasing the molecular weight of a molecule, can impart several significant pharmacological advantages over the unmodified form, such as:

Improved drug solubility

Reduced dosage frequency, without diminished efficacy with potentially reduced toxicity

Extended circulating life

Increased drug stability

Enhanced protection from proteolytic degradation

slide19

Doxil works through passing through fenestrations in the vasculature and concentrating at tumor sites

- Leads to reduced accumulation in other tissues

  • Able to deliver the drug at moderate concentrations over a longer period of time
    • Half life: 54 hours
  • Result: An anticancer drug that is

delivered more effectively

- decreased side effects and dosage

  • Doxil acts by the intercalation of DNA
nanopowder
Nanopowder

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

nanopowders
Nanopowders:
  • Nanopowders are powders composed of nanoparticles, that is particles having an average diameter below 50 nanometers (nm).
  • Such compounds have two or more different cations (positively charged elements) in their chemical formula. An example of a complex compound is calcium titanate (CaTiO3).

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

micelle
Micelle
  • Micelle is an aggregate of amphipathic molecules in water, with the nonpolar portions in the interior and the polar portions at the exterior surface, exposed to water.
  • Hydrophobic drugs can be encapsulated, into inner core.

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

slide24
Dendrimers:well_defined ,highly branched,three dimensional macro molecules with a large number of functional groups.
polymeric nanoparticles
Polymeric Nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles synthesized from polymers
entrapment or encapsulation
Entrapment or Encapsulation
  • During the 1970, scientists first began to encapsulate and entrap drugs within polymers
  • Encapsulation involves surrounding drug molecules with a solid polymer shell
  • Entrapment involves the suspension of drug molecules within a polymer matrix.

drug

polymer

Drug

Polymer

drug release by diffusion
Drug release by diffusion
  • Early encapsulation and entrapment systems released the drug from within the polymer via molecular diffusion
    • When the polymer absorbs water it swells in size
    • Swelling created voids throughout the interior polymer
    • Smaller molecule drugs can escape via the voids at a known rate controlled by molecular diffusion (a function of temperature and drug size)

Add

time

Add

water

treatment of type 1 diabetes
Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type I diabetes – autoimmune disorder that results in destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas

- treatment includes insulin therapy

  • The polymer will hopefully be able to provide the correct amount of insulin, regardless of blood sugar levels
nanoshells
Nanoshells
  • Developed by Drs. Naomi Halas and Jennifer West – Rice University 1994
  • Nanoshells have a core of silica and a metallic outer layer. These nanoshells can be injected safely, as demonstrated in animal models.
  • Because of their size, nanoshells will preferentially concentrate in cancer lesion sites. This physical selectivity occurs through a phenomenon called enhanced permeation retention (EPR).
  • Can further decorate the nanoshells to carry molecular conjugates to the antigens that are expressed on the cancer cells themselves or in the tumor microenvironment. This second degree of specificity preferentially links the nanoshells to the tumor and not to neighboring healthy cells.

http://singularityhub.com/2009/12/14/nih-guides-nanomedicine-towards-killing-cancer/

nanoshells31
Nanoshells

http://blogs.chron.com/sciguy/archives/2008/07/at_long_last_na.html

carbon 60
Carbon 60

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

carbon 6033
Carbon 60
  • C60 are spherical molecules about 1nm in diameter, comprising 60 carbon atoms arranged as 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons: the configuration of a football.
  • Hence they find application as NanoPharmaceuticals with large drug payload in their cage like structure.
  • On the other hand with development of various chemical substitutes for C60, it is possible to develop functionalized C60 with better drug targeting properties

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

carbon nanotube
Carbon Nanotube
  • Carbon nanotubes are adept at entering the nuclei of cells and may one day be used to deliver drugs and vaccines.
  • The modified nanotubes have so far only been used to ferry a small peptide into the nuclei of fibroblast cells.
  • But the researchers are hopeful that the technique may one day form the basis for new anti-cancer treatments, gene therapies and vaccines.

Dept. of Pharmaceutics

slide38

Viral vectors

  • Viruses have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner.
  • Scientist are attempting to take advantage of natures delivery system.
  • Viruses would be genetically altered to carry the desired normal gene and turn off the natural occurring disease within the virus.

[Video from www.biosciednet.org/portal]

slide40

TRANSDERMAL PATCHES:-Drug which passively diffuses through the skin. Advantages:1)No pain2)No missing of dose3)continuous drug delivery

slide41

ImplantableDrug Delivery

Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristaltically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.

nanobot in medicine
Nanobot in medicine
  • early diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, monitoring of diabetes, and health care
  • employ nanobots injected into the patient to perform treatment on a cellular level
  • improve the presence of drug molecules where they are needed in the body and where they will do the most good
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The development of particles that are nanoscaled has created great opportunities in the development of improved drug delivery systems.
works cited
Works Cited
  • http://www.eperc.mcw.edu/fastFact/ff_135.htm
  • žhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/
  • žhttp://www.weizmann.ac.il/ICS/booklet/1/pdf/copaxon.pdf
  • žhttp://www.rxlist.com/pegasys-drug.htm
  • http://www.rsc.org/delivery/_ArticleLinking/DisplayArticleForFree.cfm?doi=b900374f&JournalCode=CC
  • http://www.unisa.edu.au/iwri/futurestudents/phdprojects/interfacialpropertiesofdendrimers.asp
  • Zhang, L. "Nanoparticles in Medicine." Translational Medicine.
  • Patel, Priyal. "Nanotechnology." Drug Delivery Technology.
  • Patel, Priyal. “Nanoparticles in cancer research: a novel drug delivery&pharmacologicalapproach” Drug Delivery Technology.
  • Murry, R.“Clinicalpharmacology of encapsulated sustained-release cytarabine” The Annals of pharmacotherapy.
  • Massing, U.“Cancertherapy with liposomal formulations of anticancer drugs”. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology.
  • Hashimoto, N. “An approach to cancer chemotherapy by application of monoclonal antibody-modified liposomesInternational congress series”. International congress series.