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Latin Adjectives

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  1. Latin Adjectives I. Overview Adjectives are another part of speech, that is, another type of word (as opposed to a part of a sentence). The function of adjectives is to modify nouns or pronouns.

  2. Latin Adjectives I. Overview NB: Adjectives are words whose specific function is to modify nouns and pronouns. But as we have already seen, prepositional phrases and words that are not adjectives can also be used to modify nouns. Such words or prepositional phrases are said to behave adjectivally, but they are not of the same part of speech as adjectives and so they do not behave according to the same rules as proper adjectives in Latin.

  3. Latin Adjectives I. Overview NB: Exempla Roma urbs Romanorum est. Rome is the city of the Romans. Transit puer hortum servi. The boy goes through the garden of the slave. Amor dei magnus est. The love of God is great.

  4. Latin Adjectives I. Overview The form of an adjective in Latin is determined by the 1. GENDER 2. NUMBER 3. CASE Of the noun it modifies. In Latin, there are two types of adjectives: 1. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives 2. 3rd Declension Adjectives Adjectives fall into one of these two groups depending on which noun declension(s) they take their endings from.

  5. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives 1st and 2nd Declension adjectives are so called because they borrow the endings of the 1st and 2nd Declension. Your dictionary shows you this by listing such adjectives like so: Laetus, Laeta, Laetum This listing tell us that the adjective has 3 sets of endings, based on the 1st Declension Feminine and 2nd Declension Masculine and Neuter. Which set of endings an adjective uses is determined by the gender of the noun it modifies.

  6. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives The following chart explains which set of declensional ending a noun of the 1st and 2nd Declension uses according to the gender of its noun: Noun GenderDeclension Pattern Feminine  1st Declension Endings Masculine  2nd Declension Masculine Endings Neuter  2nd Declension Neuter Endings

  7. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Puella Laeta Puer Laetus Somnium Laetum Puellae Laetae Pueri Laeti Somnii Laeti Puellae Laetae Puero Laeto Somnio Laeto Puellam Laetam Puerum Laetum Somnium Laetum Puellā Laetā Puero Laeto Somnio Laeto Puellae Laetae Pueri Laeti Somnia Laeta Puellarum Laetarum Puerorum Laetorum Somniorum Laetorum Puellis Laetis Pueris Laetis Somniis Laetis Puellas Laetas Pueros Laetos Somnia Laeta Puellis Laetis Pueris Laetis Somniis Laetis

  8. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Note that the adjective matches the Gender, Number, and Case of the noun it modifies. The Gender, Number, and Case of the noun are determined by its function in the Sentence. Mater filio parvotogam longam faciebat. E silvis obscuristerriti pueri currunt. Miles frigidae aquaepoculum magnum bibit.

  9. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: All adjectives agree with the noun they modify in Gender, Number, and Case and ONLY GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE. This means an adjective WILL NOT always have the same ENDING as the Noun it modifies, as when the Declension of the noun and adjective are different. But the ending of the adjective ALWAYS signifies the same Gender, Number, and Case as the ending of the Noun.

  10. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: Exempla Sorores pulchraefratrem parvum amant. Canem ferum e casā parvāmiles fessus ducit. Ingenioso consilioboniimperatoris milites strenui hostes vincunt. Tertiā horāmilites conditi in urbem tacitam intrant.

  11. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: In all of the above examples, the ENDING of the ADJECTIVE is different from the ENDING of the NOUN. This is because the DECLENSION of the adjective is different from the DECLENSION of the NOUN. WHAT MATTERS is that the GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE OF THE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE ARE THE SAME, REGARDLESS OF THEIR ENDINGS.

  12. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: Exempla Sorores pulchraefratrem parvum amant. F.N.P. F.N.P. M.Ac.S. M.Ac.S. Canem ferum e casā parvāmiles fessus ducit. M.Ac.S. M.Ac.S. F.Ab.S. F.Ab.S. M.N.S. M.N.S Ingenioso consilioboniimperatoris milites strenui Ne.Ab.S. Ne.Ab.S. M.G.S. M.G.S. M.N.P. M.N.P. hostes vincunt. Tertiā horāmilites conditi in urbem tacitam intrant. F.Ab. F.Ab. M.N.P. M..N.P. F.Ac.S. F.Ac.S. S. S.

  13. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: Exemplum – Nauta and Validus, Valida, Valdum Nauta Validus Nautae Validi Nautae Validi Nautarum Validorum Nautae Valido Nautis Validis Nautam Validum Nautas Validos Nautā Valido Nautis Validis

  14. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: Exemplum – Canis and Ferus, Fera, Ferum Canis Ferus Canes Feri Canis Feri Canum Ferorum Cani Fero Canibus Feris Canem Ferum Canes Feros Cane Fero Canibus Feris

  15. Latin Adjectives II. 1st and 2nd Declension Adjectives NB: Exemplum – Carmen and Pulcher, Pulchra, Pulchrum Carmen Pulchrum Carmina Pulchra Carminis Pulchri Carminum Pulchrorum Carmini Pulchro Carminibus Pulchris Carmen Pulchrum Carmina Pulchra Carmine Pulchro Carminibus Pulchris

  16. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives 3rd Declension adjectives are so called because they borrow the endings of 3rd Declension. There are three types of 3rd Declension adjectives, grouped according to how many different ending patterns the adjective uses: 1.One Termination: The Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nominative forms are all the same. 2. Two Terminations: The Masculine and Feminine Nominative forms are the same, but the Neuter Nominative is different. 3. Three Terminations: The Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nominative forms are all different.

  17. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives NB: The endings of 3rd Delcension ADJECTIVES are slightly different from the endings of 3rd Declension NOUNS: M/F N [ ] [Same as Acc] - is - is - i - i - em [Same as Nom]  - i  - i - es - ia  - ium  - ium - ibus - ibus - es  - ia - ibus - ibus

  18. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives The way an adjective is listed in your dictionary tells you both whether an adjective belongs to the 3rd Declension and which of the three types it is: 1. If it is of One Termination, the adjective will be listed with its Nominative and Genitive Singular. Exemplum: Felix, Felicis Nom. S. Gen. S. By listing the adjective with only the Nominative and then the Genitive, your dictionary is telling you that there is only one form of the Nominative. As always, you can tell that the word belongs to the 3rd Declension because the Genitive Singular ends in –is.

  19. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives 1. One Termination M/F N M/F N Felix Felices Felicia Felicis Felicium Felici Felicibus Felicem Felix Felices Felicia Felici Felicibus

  20. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives 2. If an adjective is of Two Terminations, the adjective will be listed with the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nominative forms: Exemplum: Fortis, Fortis, Forte M.Nom.S. F.Nom.S. N.Nom.S. By listing the adjective in this way, your dictionary is telling you that this adjective has only two different forms of the Nominative, and that the Masculine and Feminine Nominative are the same. All Adjectives ending in –is, -is, -e are 3rd Declension.

  21. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives 2. Two Terminations M F N Fortis Fortis Forte Fortis Fortis Fortis Forti Forti Forti Fortem Fortem Forte Forti Forti Forti Fortes Fortes Fortia Fortium Fortium Fortium Fortibus Fortibus Fortibus Fortes Fortes Fortia Fortibus Fortibus Fortibus

  22. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives 3. If an adjective is of Three Terminations, the adjective will be listed with the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nominative forms: Exemplum: Acer, Acris, Acre M.Nom.S F.Nom.S. N.Nom.S. By listing the adjective in this way, your dictionary is telling you that this adjective has three different forms of the Nominative, and that the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nominative are different.

  23. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives 3. Three Terminations M F N Acer Acris Acre Acris Acris Acris Acri Acri Acri Acrem Acrem Acre Acri Acri Acri Acres Acres Acria Acrium Acrium Acrium Acribus ` Acribus Acribus Acres Acres Acria Acribus Acribus Acribus

  24. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives NB: As with Nouns, what defines an adjective as belonging to the 3rd Declension is the fact that the GENITIVE SINGULAR ending is –is. THIS IS ALWAYS TRUE OF 3RD DECLENSION ADJECTIVES, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THEY HAVE ONE, TWO, OR THREE TERMINATIONS.

  25. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives NB: As always, a 3rd Declension Adjective agrees with its noun in GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE, EVEN IF THE ENDINGS OF THE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE ARE NOT THE SAME.

  26. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: One Termination Puer Felix Puella Felix Somnium Felix Pueri Felicis Puellae Felicis Somnii Felicis Puero Felici Puellae Felici Somnio Felici Puerum Felicem Puellam Felicem Somnium Felix Puero Felici Puellā Felici Somnio Felici Pueri Felices Puellae Felices Somnia Felicia Puerorum Felicium Puellarum Felicium Somniorum Felicium Pueris Felicibus Puellis Felicibus Somniis Felicibus Pueros Felices Puellas Felices Somnia Felicia Pueris Felicibus Puellis Felicibus Somniis Felicibus

  27. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: One Termination NB: The Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter Nominative singular forms of the adjective are all the same. That is, the adjective has only one termination. The Neuter Accusative Singular and the Neuter Nominative and Accusative Plural all differ from those forms of the Masculine and Feminine. In all other cases, however, the forms of the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter are all the same.

  28. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Two Terminations M F N Puer Fortis Puellae Fortis Somnium Forte Pueri Fortis Puellae Fortis Somnii Fortis Puero Forti Puellae Forti Somnio Forti Puerum Fortem Puellam Fortem Somnium Forte Puero Forti Puellā Forti Somnio Forti Pueri Fortes Puellae Fortes Somnia Fortia Puerorum Fortium Puellarum Fortium Somniorum Fortium PuerisFortibus Puellis Fortibus Somniis Fortibus PuerosFortes Puellas FortesSomnia Fortia Pueris Fortibus Puellis Fortibus Somniis Fortibus

  29. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Two Terminations NB: The Nominative Masculine and Feminine singular forms of the adjective are the same, but the Nominative Neuter Singular form is different. That is, the adjective has two terminations. The Neuter Accusative Singular and the Neuter Nominative and Accusative Plural all differ from those forms of the Masculine and Feminine. In all other cases, however, the forms of the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter are all the same.

  30. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Three Terminations M F N Puer Acer Puella Acris Somnium Acre Pueri Acris Puellae Acris Somnii Acris Puero Acri Puellae Acri Somnio Acri Puerum Acrem Puellam Acrem Somnium Acre Puero Acri Puellā Acri Somnii Acri Pueri Acres Puellae Acres Somnia Acria Puerorum Acrium Puellarum Acrium Somniorum Acrium PuerisAcribus Puellis Acribus Somniis Acribus PuerosAcres Puellas Acres Somnia Acria Pueris Acribus Puellis Acribus Somniis Acribus

  31. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Three Terminations NB: The Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter nominative singular forms of the adjective are all different. That is, the adjective has two terminations. The Neuter Accusative Singular and the Neuter Nominative and Accusative Plural all differ from those forms of the Masculine and Feminine. In all other cases, however, the forms of the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter are all the same.

  32. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Sententiae Pueri fortesequum infelicem agebant. N.M.Pl. N.M.Pl. Ac.M.S. Ac.M.S. 2nd D. 3rd D. 2nd D. 3rd D. E pugnā ferocimiles incolumnis venit. F.Ab.S. F.Ab.S. M.N.S. M.N.S. 1st D. 3rd D. 3rd D. 3rd D.

  33. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Sententiae Legio fessa trans flumnia magna et montes altos transit. N.F.S N.F.S Ac.Ne.Pl. Ac.Ne.Pl. Ac.M.Pl. Ac.M.Pl. 3rd D. 1st+2nd D. 3rd D. 1st+2nd D. 3rd D. 1st+2nd D.

  34. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Sententiae NB: The above sentences feature several examples of 3rd Declension adjectives modifying a noun of the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Declension, and of 1st and 2nd Declension adjectives modifying a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Declension noun. These examples demonstrate the fact that any type of adjective can be used to modify any type of noun. The Declension of the adjective in no way changes the form of the noun, and the Declension of the noun in no way changes the form of the adjective.

  35. Latin Adjectives III. 3rd Declension Adjectives Exempla: Sententiae NB: Remember, theform of a noun in a particular case is determined by the Declension and Genderof the noun. In just the same way, the form of an adjective is determined by the Declension of the ADJECTIVE and the Gender of the NOUN. AS ALWAYS, WHAT MATTERS is that the GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE OF THE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE ARE THE SAME, REGARDLESS OF THEIR ENDINGS.