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Parts of a Seed. Mature embryo: was formed by mitosis root tip, shoot tip, cotyledon(s) Seed coat: formed from maternal flower tissue, encloses embryo and endosperm to protect seed. Endosperm: surround embryo and provides nourishment

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parts of a seed
Parts of a Seed
  • Mature embryo: was formed by mitosis root tip, shoot tip, cotyledon(s)
  • Seed coat: formed from maternal flower tissue, encloses embryo and endosperm to protect seed.
  • Endosperm: surround embryo and provides nourishment
  • Cotyledon: not true leaves (also called seed leaves) but may be capable of photosynthesis. Two major groups of plants monocots and dicots
seed germination
Seed Germination
  • Germination - the sprouting of seeds when conditions are favorable
  • Seed increases metabolic rate, water absorbed restores turgor pressure
  • Seed coat fractures and embryo emerges
  • Many seeds have interesting adaptations. What examples did you read about?
plant structure
Plant Structure
  • Shoot tip - location of apical meristem
  • Root tip- location of apical meristem
  • Node - point where leave attach
  • Internode- space between nodes
plant meristems
Plant Meristems
  • Apical meristems - in herbaceous in woody plants
    • Responsible for primary growth, growth in length of roots and shoots
  • Lateral meristems - in woody plants
    • Responsible for secondary growth increasing the width (girth) of a plant in regions of plant where primary growth has stopped
    • Contains two layers- the vascular cambium and cork cambium
primary growth in roots
Primary Growth in Roots
  • What is happening at each root zone?
  • As the apical meristem divides, some daughter cells remain part of the meristem. Some daughter cells specialize into other tissues
  • The location of the cells often determines how they will specialize because plant cells are locked in position by cell walls (cells on the outside become dermal tissue etc.)
  • Primary growth in roots produces new dermal, ground and vascular tissue.
primary growth in shoots
Primary Growth in Shoots
  • Apical meristem located at tip of terminal bud
  • Axillary buds develop from meristem tissue left by apical meristem
  • Elongation of shoot caused by elongation of cells of slightly older internodes
secondary growth
Secondary growth
  • Occurs in the lateral meristems of woody plants
  • The lateral meristem includes two layers of cells that form two columns around the plant. The vascular cambium and the cork cambium
vascular cambium
Vascular Cambium
  • The vascular cambium produces secondary layers of xylem and phloem (recall that primary growth made the primary xylem and phloem)
  • As the lateral meristem divides, some daughter cells remain part of the meristem. Some daughter cells specialize into secondary xylem and secondary phloem
  • Xylem cells are made inside the vascular cambium and phloem cells are found outside
vascular cambium1
Vascular Cambium
  • The secondary xylem is concentrated in the center of the plant in multiple layer
  • The old secondary phloem layers are incorporated into the cork cambium as the tree increases in width
secondary growth1
Secondary Growth
  • Cork Cambium - produces cork cells on the outside of the cambium
  • As these cells mature they produce suberin and water proof layer that protects the plant
  • Layers of cork are sloughed off as the tree grows in girth