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PATHOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PATHOLOGY

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  1. PATHOLOGY

  2. PATHOLOGY • is a bridging discipline involving both basic science and clinical practice and is devoted to the study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that underlie disease.

  3. PATHOLOGY • molecular, • microbiologic, • immunologic, • morphologic techniques Pathology explains the whys and wherefores of the signs and symptoms manifested by patients while providing a foundation for rational clinical care and therapy.

  4. PATHOLOGY The four aspects of a disease process that form the core of pathology:

  5. PATHOLOGY pathoMORPHOLOGY (morphology) the structural changes pathoPHYSIOLOGY (pathogenesis) the functional changes

  6. PATHOLOGY is divided into: • general pathology • systemic pathology

  7. PATHOLOGY general pathology (morphology) - hemodynamic disorders - cell injury, adaptation and death - inflammation - tissue renewal and repair - neoplasia

  8. Hemodynamic disordres

  9. Cell injury, adaptation and death

  10. Inflammation

  11. Tissue renewal and repair

  12. Neoplasia

  13. PATHOLOGY general pathology also includes - genetic disorders - diseases of immunity - infectious diseases - environmental and nutritional pathology - diseases of infancy and childhood

  14. PATHOLOGY systemic pathology

  15. the importance of the proper terminology what is the difference between: • neoplasm • tumour • cancer • carcinoma

  16. PATHOMORPHOLOGY DEPARTMENT - element of the diagnostic and therapeutic structure of the hospital - scientific department - teaching department

  17. PATHOMORPHOLOGY DEPARTMENT • histopathology • cytopathology • post-mortem diagnostics

  18. sampling approaches

  19. clinical data clinicians tend to underestimate the value of the clinical data

  20. - selection of an appropriate site and methodfor thebiopsy - appropriate preservation of the specimen

  21. appropriate preservation of the specimen

  22. quick-frozen sections

  23. Immunohistochemistry (specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies)

  24. determination of site of origin of metastatic tumors

  25. detection of molecules that have prognostic or therapeutic significance

  26. pathomorphologicalautopsies vs forensicautopsies

  27. CASE STUDY: 21 y.o. woman collapsed at work clinical symptoms noticed by co-workers: -pale, diaphoretic skin -rapid pulse -mental status- confused

  28. Hemodynamic disorders the following part of the lecture covers only chosen aspects of hemodynamic diorders

  29. Hemodynamic disorders • hemorrhage • hyperemia and congestion • embolism • infarction • edema • shock • pathology of hemostasis

  30. Guidelines for learning: • definition • etiology • pathogenesis • morphologicchanges • gross and microscopicfeatures • classification • natural history • complications • clinicalsignificance • influence of thediagnosis on therapy and prognosis for thepatient

  31. Hemorrhage definition

  32. Hemorrhage etiology

  33. Petechiae

  34. Purpura

  35. Ecchymoses

  36. Hematoma (!)

  37. Hemorrhage complications

  38. Hyperemia

  39. Congestion

  40. Acute hepatic congestion

  41. Chronic passive congestion of the liver

  42. Acute pulmonary congestion

  43. Chronic pulmonary congestion

  44. Hemostasis and Thrombosis

  45. Hemostasis and Thrombosis Thrombosis:

  46. Thrombosis pathogenesis:

  47. Thrombi

  48. Fate of the thrombus

  49. Thrombus vs. blood clot

  50. Embolism