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pathology. * Recognition(identify) : emphysema * What you should know about it : - widened air spaces. - Ruptured and thinned alveolar septa. 1. * Recognition(identify): lobar pneumonia * What you should know about it : 1- Alveolar capillaries:

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slide2

* Recognition(identify) : emphysema

  • * What you should know about it : -widened air spaces

- Ruptured and thinned alveolar septa

1

slide3

* Recognition(identify): lobar pneumonia

  • * What you should know about it : 1- Alveolar capillaries:
  • 2- Alveolar walls:
  • 3-Alveolar spaces:

Congested

Thickened

-Lymphocytes

-Macrophages

-inflammatory cells

2

slide5

* Recognition(identify) : Alveoli

  • * What you should know about it :
  • 1-Type of epithelium :
  • if Type I PneumocytesSimple squamous
  • IfType II Pneumocytescuboidal
  • 2-Types of cells :

terminal bronchioles

1

slide6

* Cont Recognition(identify) : Alveoli

  • 2-Types of cells :
  • Alveolar macrophages
  • Pneumocytes :
  • Terminal bronchioles withclaracells
  • Divide to regenerate the bronchiolar epith

Type I Pneumocytes

(Simple squamous)

1- exchange gases.

Type II Pneumocytes

(cuboidal)

1- secretion of surfactant.

2- divide to regenerate both type I & type II pneumocytes..

1

slide7

* Recognition(identify) : trachea

  • * What you should know about it :
  • 1-Type of epithelium :
  • Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (Respiratory epithelium).
  • 2-Types of cells :

Hyaline cartilage

2

slide8

* cont Recognition(identify) : trachea

  • * What you should know about it :
  • 2-Types of cells :
  • Mucosa.
  • (2) Submucosa
  • (3) Adventitia.
  • Epithelium: Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells ( basal , brush cells )
  • Lamina propria. loose fibro elastic c.t with ( mucus glands , serous glands , lymph nods )
  • (3) Elastic lamina:
  • It is formed of elastic fibers.
  • Dense fibro elastic c.t with ( mucus glands , serous glands , lymph nods )

(1) Fibroelastic C.T.

(2) C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.

(3) (bundle of smooth muscle fibers)

2

slide10

Frontal

air sinus

Sphenoidal

air sinus

Nasal septum

posterior nasal aperture (Quana )

Nostrils

(anterior nares)

uvula

Vocal cords

slide11

Hyoid bone

Thyroid

cartilage

Transverse fissure

Trachea

Right lung

Left lung

Oblique fissure

Oblique fissure

Ribs

Diaphragm

slide12

left tertiary

bronchioles

right and left main bronchi

right and left secondary

bronchi

slide13

Alveoli

carina

Diaphragm

slide14

Hyoid bone

Thyrohyoid

membrane

Thyroid cartilage

Vocal cords

Cricothyroid

membrane

Cricoid cartilage

Epiglottic cartilage

slide15

Thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

Cricithyroid membrane

trachea

Tertiary bronchioles

Primary bronchi

Secondary bronchioles

esophagus

Descending aorta

slide16

Esophageal

Opening at T10

central tendon

Esophagus

left copula

right copula

openings in the diaphragm :

T 8 : IVC opening :

T10 : Esophageal opening

T12 :Aortic opening

Right crus

slide17

Thoracic vertebrae

lamina

Heart shaped body

And every thing other than the body isa neural arch

slide18

Cont Thoracic vertebrae

Transverse process

Spine:

Horizontal and directed downward

pedicle

slide19

Cont Thoracic vertebrae

lamina

Superior demifacet

Inferior demifacet

slide20

First rib

clavicle

Manubrium

Second rib

Body

Sternum

Costal cartilage

Xiphoid

process

Upper 7 true ribs

Typical from 3 to 9

Ribs are classified as

Lower 5 false ribs

Atypical 1, 2, 10, 11, 12

slide21

Anterior side

Internal intercostal muscle

External intercostal muscle

slide22

posterior side

Innermost intercostal

Muscles

slide23

Hyoid bone

Epiglottic cartilage

Thyrohyoid membrane

Thyroid cartilage

Corniculate cartilage

Arytenoid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

slide24

Bronchopulmonary Segments right lung

Superior lobe / Apical , Anterior , Posterior

meddle lobe / Medial , Lateral

Inferior lobe / Apical basal , Medial basal

Lateral basal , Anterior basal , Posterior basal

Apical

Posterior

Anterior

Apical basal

Lateral

Medial

Anterior basal

Lateral basal

medial basal

Posterior basal

slide25

Superior lobe / Apicoposterior ,Anterior ,

  • Sup. lingular , Inf. lingular

Bronchopulmonary Segments left lung

Inferior lobe / Apical basal , Lateral basal

Anteromedial basal , Posterior basal

Apicoposterior

Anterior

Sup. lingular

Apical

basal

Inf. lingular

Anteromedial basal

Lateral basal

Posterior basal

slide28

* the Answer of question1:

(FEV1/FVC)*100=

(4.3/4.8)*100=89%

NORMAl

NOTE:صحيح ان النسبة اعلى من 80ولكن

القيم المعطاة في حدود الطبيعي

slide29

Q2:

The same way =50%

من غير تفكير obstructive lung disese

النسبة والقيم كلها جدا منخفضة

slide30

Q3:

The same way =80%

هنا ركزوا كويس النتيجة فعلا طبيعية جدا

ولكن القيم المعطاة منخفضة جدا

restrictive lung disease هيكون عطول الجواب

Ex: pulmonary fibrosis

slide31

Other causes to have less

Chest expansion :

Myasthenia gravis

Phrenic injury

obesity

عالاغلب ماهيجي ولكن الاحتياط واجب

slide32

FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100

FVC = 5

هي القيمة التي يكون عندها المنحنى

Plateau

Plateau

FEV1 = 4

هي حجم الهواء الذي خرج عند

الثانية الأولى

FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100

= (4/5) *100

=80 %

Normal

slide33

FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100

FVC = 2

FEV1 = 1.8

Plateau

1.8

FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100

= (1.8/2) *100

=90 %

Restrictive

كيف عرفنا ؟ لان ال أصلا مو

طبيعي مره قليل !

FVC = 2

slide34

FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100

FVC = 3.5

Plateau

FEV1 = 1.9

1.9

FEV1% = (FEV1/FVC) * 100

= (1.9/3.5) *100

=54 %

3.5

obstructive

slide36

Always remember ,

worrying does not empty tomorrow of its troubles ! But ,

It empties today from its strength !.

Deema , Malak , Nora