American Studies OGT Review
-Urban -Suburban -Rural -Great Plains -Appalachian Mountains -Rocky Mountains -Desert -Wetlands -Dam -Rust Belt -Sun Belt
-British controlled India from 1763-1947 -Gandhi led non-violent protests against British rule -When India gained independence, Muslims feared discrimination from the Hindu majority -Brits grant independence to two separate nations: -India: Hindu -Pakistan: Muslim -Mass migration and family upheaval for those on the wrong side -Violence and war result from religious intolerance, many refugees -Both have nuclear weapons
Colonial India What is now India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka
-Ancient Hebrews from region -Part of the Muslim Empire since 600s -The land is important to Christian, Jewish, and Muslim religions -Jews dispersed across Europe and the world -Zionism: Belief that Jews should have their own homeland -After WWI: Arabs who helped Brits supposed to gain independence -After WWII: Area divided into separate religious regions
-Israel: Jewish -Palestinians: Muslim -Gaza Strip, West Bank and Golan Heights fought over -3 wars since then -Palestine wants independent nation -Israel is US ally
Discrimination: Unfair treatment of a group based on assumptions or preconceived notions about their race/gender/ethnicity/religion • Oppression: Cruelty toward a group over long period (political/social/economic persecution) • Genocide: Deliberate systematic effort to exterminate an ethnic/religious/national group • Jewish Holocaust during WWII • Rwanda: Hutus and the Tutsis (1962-1994)
Globalization: Rapidly increasing expansion of global communications and transportation • Interdependence: Economies of various countries depend on each other • Trade, outsourcing, labor, markets • NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement • Eliminates tariffs and economic barriers between Canada, US, and Mexico (1994) • Increases trade, raises standard of living • EU: European Union (1993) • Economic region without barriers, 27 countries
OGT Question • The European Union’s objectives include reducing tariffs, promoting a single market, and creating a common currency. Based on these objectives, what type of world region does the European Union primarily represent? • A. cultural • B. physical • C. political • D. economic
Eminent Domain: Govt has the right to claim your land for the purpose of benefitting the general public • For public use, with just compensation • 26th Amendment: Changes the voting age to 18 in response to Vietnam protest (1971) • Due Process: All rights respected, no arbitrary denial of freedom, fair and just • Know your rights, have a speedy trial, attorney, jury of your peers, no vague laws, no illegal search and seizure, etc.
During the Enlightenment, a number of writers explored the relationship between governments and the people they governed. For example, Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, in which he examined ideas about majority will and the common good. How did these ideas influence the American and French Revolutions? • A. They encouraged loyalty to established governments • B. They supported movements for social and political change • C. They encouraged the formation of American and French constitutional monarchies. • D. They supported the efforts of governments to maintain control over their subjects.
What factor contributed to the migration of large numbers of people from Europe to the United States in the late 19th century? A. Industrialization in the United States attracted laborers from Europe. B. Economic prosperity in Europe allowed people to purchase land in the United States. C. European social reform movements wanted to spread their beliefs to the United States. D. The United States needed people to colonize the overseas territories it had recently acquired.
Imperialism and Industrialization There was a connection between industrial expansion and European imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. • Did imperialism increase or decrease as a result of industrialization? • Explain why this change occurred. (2 points)
The Progressive Movement • Discuss Theodore Roosevelt’s contribution to the Progressive movement? Describe Roosevelt’s legacy as the 1st Progressive president. (2 points)
World War I • Charles Schenck was found guilty of violating the 191 Espionage Act by distributing leaflets through the mail urging men to resist induction under the military draft for World War I. On appeal, Schenck’s attorneys argued that distribution of the leaflets was protected by the First Amendment. The Supreme Court upheld his conviction. This case illustrates how individuals rights can be balanced against A . The rights of other individuals. B. The security of the nation in a time of war. C. The opportunities for people to enlist in the military. D. The interest of the government in keeping courts open to provide justice.
World War II • In what way did the Treaty of Versailles establish conditions that helped create an atmosphere for WWII. • A. It called for dissolving the League of Nations, thus removing an organization for resolving future conflicts. • B. It gave Germany too much power by letting Germany keep the Alsace-Lorraine region of France. • C. It weakened the Allied countries by making France, England and Russia reduce the size of their armies. • D. It imposed harsh reparations payments on Germany, which led to economic and political instability.
1960s What were some of the beliefs and goals of the counterculture? a. Defy materialism and the conservative lifestyle and protest the Vietnam War. b. Defy materialism and the conservative lifestyle and supporting the Vietnam War. c. Support the government and the conservative lifestyle. d. Protest the government and Vietnam War but support the current lifestyle.
1960s • During the 20th century, there were a number of social movements and social protests that attempted to produce change. Identify and explain two such movements or protests. • (2 points.)