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OGT REVIEW
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  1. OGTREVIEW

  2. PRACTICE QUESTIONS • Answer all multiple choice questions. • If you don’t know the answer: eliminate the answers that you know are incorrect and then make an educated guess. • Answer all short answer questions. • Write at least 4 sentences for the 2 pt. questions and 6-8 sentences for the 4 pt. questions.

  3. The use of atomic weapons at the end of World War II fostered fears about their potential use during the Cold War years. These fears were critical in determining the U.S. response to A. the Marshall Plan. B. the Berlin Blockade. C. the Cuban Missile Crisis. D. the independence movement in India.

  4. The concepts of equality and democracy were basic to the U.S. Constitution. Yet many Americans in the 19th century did not consider Indian nations worthy of concern or protection. This resulted in discrimination and conflict between European settlers and Native Americans. For example, many Native Americans were A. displaced from their former homelands. B. prevented from trading with European settlers. C. forced to maintain their cultural heritage. D. persecuted for killing buffalo on the Great Plains.

  5. Economies must address how to produce goods and services. In the economy of a certain country, some factories are owned by individuals and private companies, and other factories are owned and controlled by the government. What type of economy does this country have? A. mixed B. market C. traditional D. command

  6. In the late 19th century, industrialization led to harsh working conditions in the United States. Which policies of the U.S. government allowed such conditions to develop and later led to the growth of labor unions to correct abuses of workers? A. laissez-faire policies toward big business B. antitrust policies toward monopolies C. imperialist policies regarding territorial expansion D. isolationist policies regarding international alliances

  7. The European Union’s objectives include reducing tariffs, promoting a single market, and creating a common currency. Based on these objectives, what type of world region does the European Union primarily represent? A. cultural B. physical C. political D. economic

  8. In a democracy, the source of authority for the government is the A. head of state. B. legislature. C. courts. D. people.

  9. The 1890 U.S. Census led some people to conclude that there was no longer a frontier line in the West. Early in the 20th century, President Theodore Roosevelt advocated the conservation of the nation’s natural resources. These events signaled a change in how people perceived A. farmland. B. urban areas. C. wilderness areas. D. centers of industry and technology.

  10. How do absolute monarchs differ from constitutional monarchs in their ability to use power? A. The power of absolute monarchs is unlimited. B. The power of absolute monarchs is maintained through periodic elections. C. The power of absolute monarchs is limited by the fundamental laws of the country. D. The power of absolute monarchs depends on continued support from their political party.

  11. In a command economy, the question of what goods to produce is primarily determined by A. cultural traditions. B. decisions by individuals. C. government plans. D. corporate policies.

  12. During World War I, conscientious objectors to military service were often accused of disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were sentenced to prison. However, other conscientious objectors were willing to accept noncombatant service. The assignment of conscientious objectors to noncombatant service was an attempt by the government to A. promote ethnic diversity within the military. B. educate people about their constitutional rights. C. balance individual rights and the common good. D. encourage people to apply for conscientious objector status.

  13. Following World War II, France attempted to re-establish control over its colony, Indochina, which included Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietminh, a communist-supported independence movement in Vietnam, fought against France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States viewed this conflict as part of the Cold War and aided France. This U.S. action was based on which policy? A. a policy of opposing colonialism B. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economy C. a policy of containing the spread of communism D. a policy of participating in United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts

  14. What economic factor primarily contributed to the movement of African-Americans from the South to the North in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? A. greater employment opportunities in urban areas B. increased imports from newly acquired U.S. territories C. the availability of free land under the Homestead Act D. the need for agricultural workers to feed a growing population

  15. Minority students in public schools were given constitutional guarantees to equal educational opportunities as a result of the A. decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. B. ratification of the 19th amendment. C. ratification of the 26th amendment. D. decision in Brown v. Board of Education.

  16. What action by the leaders of the French Revolution demonstrates that they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas? A. They called for the fall of the absolute monarchy. B. They encouraged the conquests of Napoleon. C. They fought to maintain France’s colonial empire. D. They supported the combination of church and state.

  17. In the United States, reporters’ exercise of freedom of the press may be legally restricted under what circumstances? A. when reporters disagree with official government policies B. when reporters are granted interviews with leaders of other countries C. when reporters discover that elected officials have engaged in illegal activities D. when reporters have information that could threaten national security if published

  18. What method is typically used by citizens in parliamentary and presidential democracies to achieve governmental change? A. elections B. revolution C. civil war D. secession

  19. A government was chosen by the majority party in the legislature. The people revolted and established a new government in which the ruler was chosen by religious elders and used power to enforce religious law. How did the system of government change? A. from a theocracy to an absolute monarchy B. from a presidential democracy to a dictatorship C. from a dictatorship to a constitutional monarchy D. from a parliamentary democracy to a theocracy

  20. A political action committee produces a television commercial that criticizes past actions of a candidate for president. The advertisement could be a credible source of information if the claims in the advertisement A. rely on the use of stereotypes. B. are based on unstated assumptions. C. are consistent with other credible sources of information. D. are presented in a manner that is clear and easy to understand.

  21. What perspective of African-Americans was reflected in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909? A. the desire for a return to their cultural heritage B. the need to improve working conditions in factories C. the desire to end legalized discrimination based on race D. the belief in the importance of building a new country in Africa

  22. Freedom of assembly is guaranteed by the First Amendment, but assemblies may legally be broken up when protesters A. attempt to disrupt public safety. B. publicly oppose U.S. foreign policy. C. express opinions that are controversial. D. are members of a religious organization.

  23. Religious diversity in the United States has increased in the last fifty years. One factor that has contributed to this increase has been an increase in A. emigration to Africa. B. immigration from Asia. C. immigration from Australia. D. emigration to South America. They are looking to see what you know about world religion and if you know the difference between emigration and immigration.

  24. Which action could the U.S. government employ to protect U.S. automobile manufacturers from foreign competition? A. increase taxes on the production of U.S. automobiles B. create free trade agreements with automobile-producing countries C. increase tariffs and import restrictions on foreign automobiles D. implement stricter control of competition among U.S. automobile manufacturers Trying to see if you know the difference between taxes and tariffs.

  25. One way the U.S. Constitution evolves is through the amendment process. How were the changes that occurred as a result of the ratification of the 19th and 26th Amendments similar? A. Large groups of people gained the right to vote. B. The right of individuals to bear arms was restricted. C. The powers of the federal government were expanded. D. The separation of church and state was more clearly defined.

  26. Britain and France suffered heavy casualties during World War I. Because of this, when faced with Axis expansion before World War II, these countries were A. unwilling to take actions that might start another war. B. prepared to use military intervention wherever necessary. C. dependent on the United States to intervene in an international crisis. D. reluctant to call upon the League of Nations to settle disputes.

  27. ogt The proposal by Great Britain to grant Indian independence in 1947drew opposition from Muslim leaders. Their view was that they were denied a voice in the Hindu dominated independence movement. As a result, Indian Muslims wanted A. a separate independent Muslim country. B. the continuation of British rule until differences could be resolved. C. an independent India dominated by Muslims. D. the forced evacuation of Hindus from India.

  28. Which source of information about candidates for public office probably would be free of bias? A. a pamphlet written by a political campaign worker B. a newspaper editorial stating the newspaper’s position C. a reprint of the complete text of the last candidate debate D. a political advertisement paid for by a political action committee ogt

  29. What factor contributed to the migration of large numbers of people from Europe to the United States in the late 19th century? A. Industrialization in the United States attracted laborers from Europe. B. Economic prosperity in Europe allowed people to purchase land in the United States. C. European social reform movements wanted to spread their beliefs to the United States. D. The United States needed people to colonize the overseas territories it had recently acquired. ogt

  30. Which of these is likely to be found in a nation ruled by a dictatorship? A. a free press B. a secret police C. due process of law D. active labor unions ogt

  31. One effect of widespread suburbanization in the United States during the 1920s was A. airlines adding routes to new cities. B. increased reliance upon the automobile. C. decreased immigration from Europe and Asia. D. television replacing radio as the most popular medium. ogt

  32. How did technological innovations of the late 20th century, such as communications satellites and the Internet, contribute to the exchange of cultural practices? A. They improved the efficiency of local governments. B. They reduced economic inequality among nations. C. They decreased the need for international cooperation. D. They increased opportunities to exchange information and ideas ogt

  33. Freedom of speech and freedom of the press are limited by A. the 14th Amendment. B. laws against slander and libel. C. checks and balances of state governments. D. the government’s power of eminent domain. ogt

  34. How did the U.S. Constitution change as a result of the ratification of the 19th Amendment? The right of suffrage was extended to women. B. Freedom of assembly was restricted. C. The power of government decreased. D. Freedom of the press was strengthened. ogt

  35. Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas, a product in high demand in the United States. How might the United States adjust its trade policy toward Ecuador to assure a supply? A. eliminate the tariff on bananas from Ecuador B. increase export taxes on U.S. products sold to Ecuador C. increase tariffs on bananas from Ecuador D. prohibit the import of any other products from Ecuador ogt

  36. In what way did the Treaty of Versailles establish conditions that led to the outbreak of World War II? A. It called for dissolving the League of Nations, thus removing an organization for resolving future conflicts. B. It gave Germany too much power by letting Germany keep the Alsace-Lorraine region of France. C. It weakened the Allied countries by making France, England and Russia reduce the size of their armies. D. It imposed harsh reparations payments on Germany, which led to economic and political instability. ogt

  37. Following World War II, France attempted to re-establish control over its colony, Indochina, which included Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietminh, a communist-supported independence movement in Vietnam, fought against France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States viewed this conflict as part of the Cold War and aided France. This U.S. action was based on which policy? A. a policy of opposing colonialism B. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economy C. a policy of containing the spread of communism D. a policy of participating in United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts ogt

  38. What economic factor primarily contributed to the movement of African-Americans from the South to the North in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? A. greater employment opportunities in urban areas B. increased imports from newly acquired U.S. territories C. the availability of free land under the Homestead Act D. the need for agricultural workers to feed a growing population ogt

  39. Minority students in public schools were given constitutional guarantees to equal educational opportunities as a result of the A. decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. B. ratification of the 19th amendment. C. ratification of the 26th amendment. D. decision in Brown v. Board of Education.

  40. Under what system of government are leaders typically chosen by church officials or religious elders? A. theocracy B. dictatorship C. presidential democracy D. constitutional monarchy

  41. SHORT ANSWER

  42. A group of citizens organizes a peaceful march through the streets of their nation’s capital. They carry signs calling for the nation’s leader to resign. Describe how likely this type of protest could be held in a presidential democracy and in a dictatorship. Explain the reason for these differences. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

  43. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was created in 1966. It reflected a growing concern of many women that they were being treated unfairly. For example, some believed that the education of girls was not viewed as being as important as the education of boys. Describe the perspectives of women in the 1960s that contributed to the creation of NOW regarding each of the following: • employment • political representation Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)

  44. Identify one example of harsh working conditions for British factory workers in the 19th century. Explain how industrialization led to that condition. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

  45. There was a connection between industrial expansion and European imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. • Did imperialism increase or decrease as a result of industrialization? • Explain why this change occurred.

  46. What would be the expected effect on spending by the public if the U.S. government lowered personal income tax rates? Explain your answer. • Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

  47. People from the countries of Scandinavia, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden immigrated to the United States mainly between the Civil War and World War I. In general, they settled in the American Midwest. Their reasons for leaving their homelands included overpopulation, poor farm production and dissatisfaction with their governments. Based on your knowledge of immigration patterns to the United States, identify two factors that attracted immigrants such as these to the United States. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

  48. Monarchies may be absolute monarchies or constitutional monarchies. • Explain how monarchs usually acquire power under both types of monarchies; • Describe what limits, if any, exist on how monarchs exercise power in both types of monarchies. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)

  49. Satellite-based communication systems allow people to communicate more easily. This increases the interdependence of nations around the world. Describe how another advance in global communications or transportation contributes to the exchange of cultural practices. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)